chơi xổ số keno trực tuyến

{"appState":{"pageLoadApiCallsStatus":true},"categoryState":{"relatedCategories":{"headers":{"timestamp":"2025-03-04T08:01:11+00:00"},"categoryId":33762,"data":{"title":"Chemistry","slug":"chemistry","image":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Science","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33756"},"slug":"science","categoryId":33756},{"name":"Chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"},"slug":"chemistry","categoryId":33762}],"parentCategory":{"categoryId":33756,"title":"Science","slug":"science","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33756"}},"childCategories":[],"description":"The basic building blocks of reality, explained. Plus, advanced organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and practice problems, all right here.","relatedArticles":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles?category=33762&offset=0&size=5"},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":186,"bookCount":11},"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"}},"relatedCategoriesLoadedStatus":"success"},"listState":{"list":{"count":10,"total":187,"items":[{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T08:18:21+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-07-10T16:47:55+00:00","timestamp":"2024-07-10T18:01:05+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Science","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33756"},"slug":"science","categoryId":33756},{"name":"Chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"},"slug":"chemistry","categoryId":33762}],"title":"Identifying Chiral Molecules, Meso Compounds, and Diastereomers","strippedTitle":"identifying chiral molecules, meso compounds, and diastereomers","slug":"how-to-identify-chiral-centers-in-a-molecule","canonicalUrl":"","检数据库索登录器SEO提升":{"metaDescription":"Learn about chiral molecules and how to identify them. Also learn about meso compounds, which contain a plane of symmetry and are achiral.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Chiral molecules usually contain at least one carbon atom with four nonidentical substituents. Such a carbon atom is called a <i>chiral center</i> (or sometimes a <i>stereogenic center</i>), using organic-speak. Any molecule that contains a chiral center will be chiral, with the exception of a meso compound (see below for how to identify these).\r\n\r\nFor example, the compound shown here contains a carbon atom with four nonidentical substituents; this carbon atom is a chiral center, and the molecule itself is chiral, because it's nonsuperimposable on its mirror image.\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 277px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/457504.image0.jpg\" alt=\"A chiral center.\" width=\"277\" height=\"116\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">A chiral center</div>\r\n</div>\r\nYou need to be able to quickly spot chiral centers in molecules. All straight-chain alkyl group carbons (CH<sub>3</sub> or CH<sub>2</sub> units) will <i>not</i> be chiral centers because these groups have two or more identical groups (the hydrogens) attached to the carbons. Neither will carbons on double or triple bonds be chiral centers because they can't have bonds to four different groups.\r\n\r\nWhen looking at a molecule, look for carbons that are substituted with four different groups. See, for example, if you can spot the two chiral centers in the molecule shown here.\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 214px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/457505.image1.jpg\" alt=\"A molecule with two chiral centers.\" width=\"214\" height=\"97\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">A molecule with two chiral centers</div>\r\n</div>\r\nBecause CH<sub>3</sub> and CH<sub>2</sub> groups cannot be chiral centers, this molecule has only three carbons that could be chiral centers. The two leftmost possibilities, identified in the next figure, have four nonidentical groups and are chiral centers, but the one on the far right has two identical methyl (CH<sub>3</sub>) groups and so is not a chiral center.\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 388px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/457506.image2.jpg\" alt=\"The chiral centers in a long molecule.\" width=\"388\" height=\"190\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">The chiral centers in a long molecule</div>\r\n</div>\r\n<div></div>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >How to identify molecules as meso compounds</h2>\r\n<div>\r\n\r\nA meso compound contains a plane of symmetry and so is achiral, regardless of whether the molecule has a chiral center. A plane of symmetry is a plane that cuts a molecule in half, yielding two halves that are mirror reflections of each other.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">By definition, a molecule that's not superimposable on its mirror image is a chiral molecule. Compounds that contain chiral centers are generally chiral, whereas molecules that have planes of symmetry are achiral and have structures that are identical to their mirror images.</p>\r\n\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 497px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/458164.image0.jpg\" alt=\"The plane of symmetry in meso compounds.\" width=\"497\" height=\"192\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">The plane of symmetry in meso compounds</div>\r\n</div>\r\nFor example, <i>cis</i>-1,2-dibromocyclopentane (shown in the first figure) is meso because a plane cuts the molecule into two halves that are reflections of each other. <i>Trans</i>-1,2-dibromocyclopentane, however, is chiral because no plane splits the molecule into two mirror-image halves.\r\n\r\nNow look at the mirror images of these two molecules in the second figure to prove this generality to yourself.\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 525px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/458165.image1.jpg\" alt=\"The mirror images of achiral (meso) and chiral molecules.\" width=\"525\" height=\"148\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">The mirror images of achiral (meso) and chiral molecules</div>\r\n</div>\r\nEven though the cis compound has two chiral centers (indicated with asterisks), the molecule is achiral because the mirror image is identical to the original molecule (and is, therefore, superimposable on the original molecule). Molecules with planes of symmetry will always have superimposable mirror images and will be achiral. On the other hand, the trans stereoisomer has no plane of symmetry and is chiral.\r\n\r\nIn organic chemistry, you need to be able to spot planes of symmetry in molecules so you can determine whether a molecule with chiral centers will be chiral or meso. For example, can you spot the planes of symmetry in each of the meso compounds shown in the last figure?\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 525px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/458166.image2.jpg\" alt=\"Some meso compounds.\" width=\"525\" height=\"139\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">Some meso compounds</div>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>\r\n<div></div>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >How to Identify the Diastereomers of a Molecule</h2>\r\n<div>\r\n\r\nWhen more than one chiral center is present in a molecule, you have the possibility of having stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other. Such stereoisomers that are not mirror images are called <i>diastereomers</i>.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Typically, you can only have diastereomers when the molecule has two or more chiral centers.</p>\r\nThe maximum number of possible stereoisomers that a molecule can have is a function of 2<i><sup>n</sup></i>, where <i>n</i> is the number of chiral centers in the molecule. Therefore, a molecule with five chiral centers can have up to 2<sup>5</sup> or 32 possible stereoisomers! As the number of chiral centers increases, the number of possible stereoisomers for that compound increases rapidly.\r\n\r\nFor example, the molecule shown here has two chiral centers.\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 173px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/458169.image0.jpg\" alt=\"A molecule with two chiral centers.\" width=\"173\" height=\"140\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">A molecule with two chiral centers</div>\r\n</div>\r\nBecause this molecule has two chiral centers, it can have a total of 2<sup>2</sup>, or 4, possible stereoisomers, of which only one will be the enantiomer of the original molecule.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\"><i>Enantiomers</i> are stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other.</p>\r\nBecause both chiral centers in this molecule are of R configuration, the enantiomer of this molecule would have the S configuration for both chiral centers. All the stereoisomers of this molecule are shown in the next figure. Those molecules that are not enantiomers of each other are diastereomers of each other.\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 525px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/458170.image1.jpg\" alt=\"The four stereoisomers of a molecule with two chiral centers.\" width=\"525\" height=\"165\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">The four stereoisomers of a molecule with two chiral centers</div>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>","description":"Chiral molecules usually contain at least one carbon atom with four nonidentical substituents. Such a carbon atom is called a <i>chiral center</i> (or sometimes a <i>stereogenic center</i>), using organic-speak. Any molecule that contains a chiral center will be chiral, with the exception of a meso compound (see below for how to identify these).\r\n\r\nFor example, the compound shown here contains a carbon atom with four nonidentical substituents; this carbon atom is a chiral center, and the molecule itself is chiral, because it's nonsuperimposable on its mirror image.\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 277px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/457504.image0.jpg\" alt=\"A chiral center.\" width=\"277\" height=\"116\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">A chiral center</div>\r\n</div>\r\nYou need to be able to quickly spot chiral centers in molecules. All straight-chain alkyl group carbons (CH<sub>3</sub> or CH<sub>2</sub> units) will <i>not</i> be chiral centers because these groups have two or more identical groups (the hydrogens) attached to the carbons. Neither will carbons on double or triple bonds be chiral centers because they can't have bonds to four different groups.\r\n\r\nWhen looking at a molecule, look for carbons that are substituted with four different groups. See, for example, if you can spot the two chiral centers in the molecule shown here.\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 214px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/457505.image1.jpg\" alt=\"A molecule with two chiral centers.\" width=\"214\" height=\"97\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">A molecule with two chiral centers</div>\r\n</div>\r\nBecause CH<sub>3</sub> and CH<sub>2</sub> groups cannot be chiral centers, this molecule has only three carbons that could be chiral centers. The two leftmost possibilities, identified in the next figure, have four nonidentical groups and are chiral centers, but the one on the far right has two identical methyl (CH<sub>3</sub>) groups and so is not a chiral center.\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 388px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/457506.image2.jpg\" alt=\"The chiral centers in a long molecule.\" width=\"388\" height=\"190\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">The chiral centers in a long molecule</div>\r\n</div>\r\n<div></div>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >How to identify molecules as meso compounds</h2>\r\n<div>\r\n\r\nA meso compound contains a plane of symmetry and so is achiral, regardless of whether the molecule has a chiral center. A plane of symmetry is a plane that cuts a molecule in half, yielding two halves that are mirror reflections of each other.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">By definition, a molecule that's not superimposable on its mirror image is a chiral molecule. Compounds that contain chiral centers are generally chiral, whereas molecules that have planes of symmetry are achiral and have structures that are identical to their mirror images.</p>\r\n\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 497px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/458164.image0.jpg\" alt=\"The plane of symmetry in meso compounds.\" width=\"497\" height=\"192\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">The plane of symmetry in meso compounds</div>\r\n</div>\r\nFor example, <i>cis</i>-1,2-dibromocyclopentane (shown in the first figure) is meso because a plane cuts the molecule into two halves that are reflections of each other. <i>Trans</i>-1,2-dibromocyclopentane, however, is chiral because no plane splits the molecule into two mirror-image halves.\r\n\r\nNow look at the mirror images of these two molecules in the second figure to prove this generality to yourself.\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 525px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/458165.image1.jpg\" alt=\"The mirror images of achiral (meso) and chiral molecules.\" width=\"525\" height=\"148\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">The mirror images of achiral (meso) and chiral molecules</div>\r\n</div>\r\nEven though the cis compound has two chiral centers (indicated with asterisks), the molecule is achiral because the mirror image is identical to the original molecule (and is, therefore, superimposable on the original molecule). Molecules with planes of symmetry will always have superimposable mirror images and will be achiral. On the other hand, the trans stereoisomer has no plane of symmetry and is chiral.\r\n\r\nIn organic chemistry, you need to be able to spot planes of symmetry in molecules so you can determine whether a molecule with chiral centers will be chiral or meso. For example, can you spot the planes of symmetry in each of the meso compounds shown in the last figure?\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 525px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/458166.image2.jpg\" alt=\"Some meso compounds.\" width=\"525\" height=\"139\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">Some meso compounds</div>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>\r\n<div></div>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >How to Identify the Diastereomers of a Molecule</h2>\r\n<div>\r\n\r\nWhen more than one chiral center is present in a molecule, you have the possibility of having stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other. Such stereoisomers that are not mirror images are called <i>diastereomers</i>.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Typically, you can only have diastereomers when the molecule has two or more chiral centers.</p>\r\nThe maximum number of possible stereoisomers that a molecule can have is a function of 2<i><sup>n</sup></i>, where <i>n</i> is the number of chiral centers in the molecule. Therefore, a molecule with five chiral centers can have up to 2<sup>5</sup> or 32 possible stereoisomers! As the number of chiral centers increases, the number of possible stereoisomers for that compound increases rapidly.\r\n\r\nFor example, the molecule shown here has two chiral centers.\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 173px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/458169.image0.jpg\" alt=\"A molecule with two chiral centers.\" width=\"173\" height=\"140\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">A molecule with two chiral centers</div>\r\n</div>\r\nBecause this molecule has two chiral centers, it can have a total of 2<sup>2</sup>, or 4, possible stereoisomers, of which only one will be the enantiomer of the original molecule.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\"><i>Enantiomers</i> are stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other.</p>\r\nBecause both chiral centers in this molecule are of R configuration, the enantiomer of this molecule would have the S configuration for both chiral centers. All the stereoisomers of this molecule are shown in the next figure. Those molecules that are not enantiomers of each other are diastereomers of each other.\r\n<div class=\"imageBlock\" style=\"width: 525px;\">\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/458170.image1.jpg\" alt=\"The four stereoisomers of a molecule with two chiral centers.\" width=\"525\" height=\"165\" />\r\n<div class=\"imageCaption\">The four stereoisomers of a molecule with two chiral centers</div>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9321,"name":"Arthur Winter","slug":"arthur-winter","description":" <p><B>Arthur Winter, PhD, </b>is the author of the popular <i>Organic Chemistry Help!</i> website chemhelper.com and <i>Organic Chemistry I For Dummies</i>. His professional focus is on the chemistry of magneto-organic materials. </p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9321"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33762,"title":"Chemistry","slug":"chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"How to identify molecules as meso compounds","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"How to Identify the Diastereomers of a Molecule","target":"#tab2"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":209153,"title":"Organic Chemistry I For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"organic-chemistry-i-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209153"}},{"articleId":203357,"title":"Organic Compounds with Important Biological Functions","slug":"4-families-of-organic-compounds-with-important-biological-functions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/203357"}},{"articleId":193338,"title":"Common Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry","slug":"common-functional-groups-in-organic-chemistry","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193338"}},{"articleId":155208,"title":"An Example Organic Chemistry Mechanism Problem","slug":"an-example-organic-chemistry-mechanism-problem","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/155208"}},{"articleId":155207,"title":"How Conjugated Double-Bond Stereochemistry Works in Vision","slug":"how-conjugated-double-bond-stereochemistry-works-in-vision","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/155207"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":295575,"title":"Chemistry All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"chemistry-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/295575"}},{"articleId":253707,"title":"How to Make Unit Conversions","slug":"make-unit-conversions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253707"}},{"articleId":251836,"title":"How to Convert Units Using Conversion Factors","slug":"convert-units-using-conversion-factors","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251836"}},{"articleId":251010,"title":"How to Build Derived Units from Base Units","slug":"build-derived-units-base-units","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251010"}},{"articleId":251005,"title":"How to Do Arithmetic with Significant Figures","slug":"arithmetic-significant-figures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251005"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282434,"slug":"organic-chemistry-i-for-dummies-2nd-edition","isbn":"9781119293378","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119293375/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119293375/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119293375-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119293375/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119293375/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/organic-chemistry-i-for-dummies-2nd-edition-cover-9781119293378-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Organic Chemistry I For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><B><b data-author-id=\"9321\">Arthur Winter</b>, PhD, </b>is the author of the popular <i>Organic Chemistry Help!</i> website chemhelper.com and <i>Organic Chemistry I For Dummies</i>. His professional focus is on the chemistry of magneto-organic materials. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9321,"name":"Arthur Winter","slug":"arthur-winter","description":" <p><B>Arthur Winter, PhD, </b>is the author of the popular <i>Organic Chemistry Help!</i> website chemhelper.com and <i>Organic Chemistry I For Dummies</i>. His professional focus is on the chemistry of magneto-organic materials. </p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9321"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;science&quot;,&quot;chemistry&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119293378&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64ac476139810\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;science&quot;,&quot;chemistry&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119293378&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64ac47613a103\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-07-19T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":146412},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T09:23:24+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-07-05T18:09:01+00:00","timestamp":"2024-07-05T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Science","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33756"},"slug":"science","categoryId":33756},{"name":"Chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"},"slug":"chemistry","categoryId":33762}],"title":"Organic Compounds with Important Biological Functions","strippedTitle":"organic compounds with important biological functions","slug":"4-families-of-organic-compounds-with-important-biological-functions","canonicalUrl":"","检数据库索登录器SEO提升":{"metaDescription":"Learn about the four organic compounds — carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids — and their important biological functions.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"When elements combine through chemical reactions, they form <i>compounds.</i> When compounds contain carbon, they’re called <i>organic compounds.</i> The four families of organic compounds with important biological functions are","description":"When elements combine through chemical reactions, they form <i>compounds.</i> When compounds contain carbon, they’re called <i>organic compounds.</i> The four families of organic compounds with important biological functions are","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9321,"name":"Arthur Winter","slug":"arthur-winter","description":" <p><B>Arthur Winter, PhD, </b>is the author of the popular <i>Organic Chemistry Help!</i> website chemhelper.com and <i>Organic Chemistry I For Dummies</i>. His professional focus is on the chemistry of magneto-organic materials. </p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9321"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33762,"title":"Chemistry","slug":"chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33759,"title":"Biochemistry","slug":"biochemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33759"}},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":209153,"title":"Organic Chemistry I For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"organic-chemistry-i-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209153"}},{"articleId":193338,"title":"Common Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry","slug":"common-functional-groups-in-organic-chemistry","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/193338"}},{"articleId":155207,"title":"How Conjugated Double-Bond Stereochemistry Works in Vision","slug":"how-conjugated-double-bond-stereochemistry-works-in-vision","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/155207"}},{"articleId":155208,"title":"An Example Organic Chemistry Mechanism Problem","slug":"an-example-organic-chemistry-mechanism-problem","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/155208"}},{"articleId":155205,"title":"The Use of Spectroscopy in Determining Doping in Athletes","slug":"the-use-of-spectroscopy-in-determining-doping-in-athletes","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/155205"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":295575,"title":"Chemistry All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"chemistry-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/295575"}},{"articleId":253707,"title":"How to Make Unit Conversions","slug":"make-unit-conversions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253707"}},{"articleId":251836,"title":"How to Convert Units Using Conversion Factors","slug":"convert-units-using-conversion-factors","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251836"}},{"articleId":251010,"title":"How to Build Derived Units from Base Units","slug":"build-derived-units-base-units","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251010"}},{"articleId":251005,"title":"How to Do Arithmetic with Significant Figures","slug":"arithmetic-significant-figures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251005"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282434,"slug":"organic-chemistry-i-for-dummies-2nd-edition","isbn":"9781119293378","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119293375/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119293375/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119293375-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119293375/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119293375/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/organic-chemistry-i-for-dummies-2nd-edition-cover-9781119293378-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Organic Chemistry I For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><B><b data-author-id=\"9321\">Arthur Winter</b>, PhD, </b>is the author of the popular <i>Organic Chemistry Help!</i> website chemhelper.com and <i>Organic Chemistry I For Dummies</i>. His professional focus is on the chemistry of magneto-organic materials. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9321,"name":"Arthur Winter","slug":"arthur-winter","description":" <p><B>Arthur Winter, PhD, </b>is the author of the popular <i>Organic Chemistry Help!</i> website chemhelper.com and <i>Organic Chemistry I For Dummies</i>. His professional focus is on the chemistry of magneto-organic materials. </p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9321"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;science&quot;,&quot;chemistry&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119293378&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64a5da0f38980\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;science&quot;,&quot;chemistry&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119293378&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64a5da0f39219\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Step by Step","articleList":null,"content":[{"title":"Carbohydrates","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/462582.image0.jpg","width":398,"height":400},"content":"<p>These molecules consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of roughly 1:2:1. If a test question involves identifying a compound as a carbohydrate, count the atoms and see if they fit that ratio. Carbohydrates are formed by the chemical reaction process of <i>condensation,</i> or <i>dehydration synthesis,</i> and broken apart by <i>hydrolysis,</i> the cleavage of a chemical by a reaction that adds water. There are several subcategories of carbohydrates:</p>\n<p><b><i>Monosaccharides</i></b><i>,</i> also called <i>monomers</i> or <i>simple sugars,</i> are the building blocks of larger carbohydrate molecules and are a source of stored energy. Key monomers include <i>glucose</i> (also known as blood sugar), <i>fructose,</i> and <i>galactose.</i></p>\n<p>These three have the same numbers of carbon (6), hydrogen (12), and oxygen (6) atoms in each molecule — formally written as C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>12</sub>O<sub>6 </sub>— but the bonding arrangements are different. Molecules with this kind of relationship are called <i>isomers.</i> Two important five-carbon monosaccharides (pentoses) are <i>ribose,</i> a component of ribonucleic acids (RNA), and <i>deoxyribose,</i> a component of deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA).</p>\n<p><b><i>Disaccharides</i></b><i>,</i> or <i>dimers,</i> are sugars formed by the bonding of two monosaccharides, including <i>sucrose</i> (table sugar), <i>lactose,</i> and <i>maltose.</i></p>\n<p><b><i>Oligosaccharides</i></b> (from the Greek <i>oligo,</i> a few, and <i>sacchar,</i> sugar) contain three to nine simple sugars that serve many functions. They are found on plasma membranes of cells where they function in cell-to-cell recognition.</p>\n<p><i>Polysaccharides,</i> or <i>polymers,</i> are formed when many monomers bond into long, chainlike molecules. <i>Glycogen</i> is the primary polymer in the body; it breaks down to individual monomers of glucose, an immediate source of energy for cells.</p>\n"},{"title":"Lipids","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/462583.image1.jpg","width":535,"height":139},"content":"<p>Commonly known as fats, these molecules contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and sometimes nitrogen and phosphorous. Insoluble in water because they contain a preponderance of nonpolar bonds, lipid molecules have six times more stored energy than carbohydrate molecules. Upon hydrolysis, however, most fats form glycerol and fatty acids.</p>\n<p>A fatty acid is a long, straight chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached. If the carbon chain has its full number of hydrogen atoms, the fatty acid is <i>saturated</i> (examples include butter and lard). If the carbon chain has less than its full number of hydrogen atoms, the fatty acid is <i>unsaturated</i> (examples include margarine and vegetable oils). All fatty acids contain a carboxyl or acid group, –COOH, at the end of the carbon chain.</p>\n<p><i>Phospholipids,</i> as the name suggests, contain phosphorus and often nitrogen and form a bilayer in the cell membrane. <i>Steroids</i> are fat-soluble compounds such as vitamins A or D and hormones that often serve to regulate metabolic processes.</p>\n"},{"title":"Proteins","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/462584.image2.jpg","width":500,"height":400},"content":"<p>Among the largest molecules, proteins can reach molecular weights of some 40 million atomic units. Proteins always contain the four HONC elements — hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon — and sometimes contain phosphorus and sulfur. The human body builds protein molecules using 20 different kinds of smaller molecules called <i>amino acids</i>.</p>\n<p>Each amino acid molecule is composed of an amino group, –NH<sub>2</sub>, and a carboxyl group, –COOH, with a carbon chain between them. Amino acids link together by <i>peptide bonds</i> to form long molecules called <i>polypeptides,</i> which then assemble into proteins. These bonds form when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of another molecule, releasing a molecule of water <i>(dehydration synthesis reaction).</i></p>\n<p>Examples of proteins in the body include <i>antibodies, hemoglobin</i> (the red pigment in red blood cells), and <i>enzymes</i> (catalysts that accelerate reactions in the body).</p>\n"},{"title":"Nucleic acids","thumb":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/462585.image3.jpg","width":216,"height":400},"content":"<p>These long molecules, found primarily in the cell’s nucleus, act as the body’s genetic blueprint. They’re comprised of smaller building blocks called <i>nucleotides.</i> Each nucleotide, in turn, is composed of a five-carbon sugar <i>(deoxyribose</i> or <i>ribose),</i> a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.</p>\n<p>The nitrogenous bases in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) are <i>adenine, thymine, cytosine,</i> and <i>guanine;</i> they always pair off A-T and C-G. In RNA (ribonucleic acid), which occurs in a single strand, thymine is replaced by <i>uracil,</i> so the nucleotides pair off A-U and C-G.</p>\n<p>In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick published their discovery of the three-dimensional structure of DNA — a polymer that looks like a ladder twisted into a coil. They called this structure the <i>double-stranded helix</i><i>.</i></p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-09-27T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":203357},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T13:15:56+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-05-03T19:58:38+00:00","timestamp":"2024-05-03T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Science","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33756"},"slug":"science","categoryId":33756},{"name":"Chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"},"slug":"chemistry","categoryId":33762}],"title":"Chemistry Formulas Acid/Base Calculations","strippedTitle":"chemistry formulas acid/base calculations","slug":"formulas-for-solving-problems-dealing-with-acids-and-bases","canonicalUrl":"","检数据库索登录器SEO提升":{"metaDescription":"Acid-base reactions and their associated calculations play a primary role in many chemical, biological, and environmental systems. Whether you’re determining hy","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Acid-base reactions and their associated calculations play a primary role in many chemical, biological, and environmental systems. Whether you’re determining hydrogen ion concentration, [H<sup>+</sup>]; hydroxide ion concentration, [OH<sup>˗</sup>]; pH; or pOH, an equation and a calculator are important tools to have in your toolbox. Following are some handy formulas for solving acid/base problems.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Calculating hydrogen or hydroxide ion concentration</h2>\r\nThe following equation allows you to calculate the hydrogen ion concentration, [H<sup>+</sup>], at 25°C if you know the hydroxide ion concentration, [OH<sup>–</sup>]; you can also find [OH<sup>–</sup>] if you know [H<sup>+</sup>]. Just divide 1 × 10<sup>–</sup><sup>14</sup> by the concentration given, and you get the concentration that you need. <b><i>Tip: </i></b>To use scientific notation on your calculator, use the EE or EXP key (followed by the exponent) rather than the × 10^ keys.\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/412990.image0.jpg\" alt=\"image0.jpg\" width=\"535\" height=\"81\" />\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Calculating hydrogen or hydroxide ion concentration from the pH or pOH</h2>\r\nBe familiar with how to solve for [H<sup>+</sup>] or [OH<sup>–</sup>] when given the pH or pOH (or vice versa). Use the following formulas:\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/412991.image1.jpg\" alt=\"image1.jpg\" width=\"535\" height=\"129\" />\r\n\r\nMany scientific and graphing calculators differ in how they handle inputting values and taking logarithms, so know the proper keystroke order for your calculator. Be sure to review your calculator manual or look online.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Calculating pH when given the pOH</h2>\r\nCalculating pH when you know the pOH (or vice versa) is probably the easiest of the acid-base calculations. Here’s the formula:\r\n<blockquote>pH + pOH = 14</blockquote>\r\nSimply subtract the given value from 14 (keeping significant digits in mind) to get the value that you need.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Doing titration calculations with a 1:1 acid-to-base ratio</h2>\r\nWhen you’re given titration calculations where the acid and base are reacting in a 1:1 ratio according to the balanced equation, the following equation offers a quick and easy way to solve for either the concentration of one of the substances or the volume necessary to complete the titration:\r\n<blockquote>M<sub>A</sub>V<sub>A</sub> = M<sub>B</sub>V<sub>B</sub></blockquote>\r\nIf the acid and base aren’t reacting in a 1:1 ratio, use stoichiometry (or dimensional analysis) to solve for your unknown quantity. By the way, stoichiometry works for the 1:1 ratio questions, too; it just takes one or two more steps. <b><i>Remember</i></b><b><i>:</i></b> Keep track of your units! Cancel what you need to get rid of and make sure that you still have the units you need in your final answer.","description":"Acid-base reactions and their associated calculations play a primary role in many chemical, biological, and environmental systems. Whether you’re determining hydrogen ion concentration, [H<sup>+</sup>]; hydroxide ion concentration, [OH<sup>˗</sup>]; pH; or pOH, an equation and a calculator are important tools to have in your toolbox. Following are some handy formulas for solving acid/base problems.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Calculating hydrogen or hydroxide ion concentration</h2>\r\nThe following equation allows you to calculate the hydrogen ion concentration, [H<sup>+</sup>], at 25°C if you know the hydroxide ion concentration, [OH<sup>–</sup>]; you can also find [OH<sup>–</sup>] if you know [H<sup>+</sup>]. Just divide 1 × 10<sup>–</sup><sup>14</sup> by the concentration given, and you get the concentration that you need. <b><i>Tip: </i></b>To use scientific notation on your calculator, use the EE or EXP key (followed by the exponent) rather than the × 10^ keys.\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/412990.image0.jpg\" alt=\"image0.jpg\" width=\"535\" height=\"81\" />\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Calculating hydrogen or hydroxide ion concentration from the pH or pOH</h2>\r\nBe familiar with how to solve for [H<sup>+</sup>] or [OH<sup>–</sup>] when given the pH or pOH (or vice versa). Use the following formulas:\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/412991.image1.jpg\" alt=\"image1.jpg\" width=\"535\" height=\"129\" />\r\n\r\nMany scientific and graphing calculators differ in how they handle inputting values and taking logarithms, so know the proper keystroke order for your calculator. Be sure to review your calculator manual or look online.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Calculating pH when given the pOH</h2>\r\nCalculating pH when you know the pOH (or vice versa) is probably the easiest of the acid-base calculations. Here’s the formula:\r\n<blockquote>pH + pOH = 14</blockquote>\r\nSimply subtract the given value from 14 (keeping significant digits in mind) to get the value that you need.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Doing titration calculations with a 1:1 acid-to-base ratio</h2>\r\nWhen you’re given titration calculations where the acid and base are reacting in a 1:1 ratio according to the balanced equation, the following equation offers a quick and easy way to solve for either the concentration of one of the substances or the volume necessary to complete the titration:\r\n<blockquote>M<sub>A</sub>V<sub>A</sub> = M<sub>B</sub>V<sub>B</sub></blockquote>\r\nIf the acid and base aren’t reacting in a 1:1 ratio, use stoichiometry (or dimensional analysis) to solve for your unknown quantity. By the way, stoichiometry works for the 1:1 ratio questions, too; it just takes one or two more steps. <b><i>Remember</i></b><b><i>:</i></b> Keep track of your units! Cancel what you need to get rid of and make sure that you still have the units you need in your final answer.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9451,"name":"Heather Hattori","slug":"heather-hattori","description":" <p><b>Heather Hattori</b> has taught both high school and college level chemistry during her 30+ years in education.</p> <p><b>Richard H. Langley, PhD,</b> is on the faculty of Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches,Texas, where he teaches chemistry. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9451"}},{"authorId":9452,"name":"Richard H. Langley","slug":"richard-h-langley","description":" <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> and <b>Richard H. Langley, PhD,</b> teach Chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University. 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Langley, PhD,</b> is on the faculty of Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches,Texas, where he teaches chemistry. <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> and <b><b data-author-id=\"9452\">Richard H. Langley</b>, PhD,</b> teach Chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University. Together they have more than 8.9 x 10<sup>1</sup> years of science education experience, and they have authored or coauthored oodles of books on chemistry topics.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9451,"name":"Heather Hattori","slug":"heather-hattori","description":" <p><b>Heather Hattori</b> has taught both high school and college level chemistry during her 30+ years in education.</p> <p><b>Richard H. Langley, PhD,</b> is on the faculty of Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches,Texas, where he teaches chemistry. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9451"}},{"authorId":9452,"name":"Richard H. Langley","slug":"richard-h-langley","description":" <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> and <b>Richard H. Langley, PhD,</b> teach Chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University. 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These functions occur often enough in differential equations and ","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The hyperbolic functions are certain combinations of the exponential functions <i>e</i><i><sup>x</sup></i> and <i>e</i><i><sup>–</sup></i><i><sup>x</sup></i>. These functions occur often enough in differential equations and engineering that they’re typically introduced in a Calculus course. Some of the real-life applications of these functions relate to the study of electric transmission and suspension cables.\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/421672.image0.png\" alt=\"A chart of derivative and integration formulas for hyperbolic functions.\" width=\"535\" height=\"514\" />","description":"The hyperbolic functions are certain combinations of the exponential functions <i>e</i><i><sup>x</sup></i> and <i>e</i><i><sup>–</sup></i><i><sup>x</sup></i>. These functions occur often enough in differential equations and engineering that they’re typically introduced in a Calculus course. Some of the real-life applications of these functions relate to the study of electric transmission and suspension cables.\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/421672.image0.png\" alt=\"A chart of derivative and integration formulas for hyperbolic functions.\" width=\"535\" height=\"514\" />","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9451,"name":"Heather Hattori","slug":"heather-hattori","description":" <p><b>Heather Hattori</b> has taught both high school and college level chemistry during her 30+ years in education.</p> <p><b>Richard H. Langley, PhD,</b> is on the faculty of Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches,Texas, where he teaches chemistry. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9451"}},{"authorId":9452,"name":"Richard H. Langley","slug":"richard-h-langley","description":" <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> and <b>Richard H. Langley, PhD,</b> teach Chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University. Together they have more than 8.9 x 10<sup>1</sup> years of science education experience, and they have authored or coauthored oodles of books on chemistry topics.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9452"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33762,"title":"Chemistry","slug":"chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":207759,"title":"Chemistry: 1001 Practice Problems For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"1001-chemistry-practice-problems-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207759"}},{"articleId":156958,"title":"Writing Electron Configurations","slug":"writing-electron-configurations","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/156958"}},{"articleId":156959,"title":"Chemistry Formulas Acid/Base Calculations","slug":"formulas-for-solving-problems-dealing-with-acids-and-bases","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/156959"}},{"articleId":156913,"title":"Keeping Track of Units in Chemistry Calculations","slug":"keeping-track-of-units-in-chemistry-calculations","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/156913"}},{"articleId":156914,"title":"Balancing Chemical Equations","slug":"balancing-chemical-equations","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/156914"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":295575,"title":"Chemistry All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"chemistry-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/295575"}},{"articleId":253707,"title":"How to Make Unit Conversions","slug":"make-unit-conversions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253707"}},{"articleId":251836,"title":"How to Convert Units Using Conversion Factors","slug":"convert-units-using-conversion-factors","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251836"}},{"articleId":251010,"title":"How to Build Derived Units from Base Units","slug":"build-derived-units-base-units","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251010"}},{"articleId":251005,"title":"How to Do Arithmetic with Significant Figures","slug":"arithmetic-significant-figures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251005"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":281916,"slug":"chemistry-1001-practice-problems-for-dummies-free-online-practice","isbn":"9781119883531","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119883539/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119883539/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119883539-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119883539/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119883539/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119883531-204x255.jpg","width":204,"height":255},"title":"Chemistry: 1001 Practice Problems For Dummies (+ Free Online Practice)","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b><b data-author-id=\"9451\">Heather Hattori</b></b> has taught both high school and college level chemistry during her 30+ years in education.</p> <p><b>Richard H. Langley, PhD,</b> is on the faculty of Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches,Texas, where he teaches chemistry. <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> and <b><b data-author-id=\"9452\">Richard H. Langley</b>, PhD,</b> teach Chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University. Together they have more than 8.9 x 10<sup>1</sup> years of science education experience, and they have authored or coauthored oodles of books on chemistry topics.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9451,"name":"Heather Hattori","slug":"heather-hattori","description":" <p><b>Heather Hattori</b> has taught both high school and college level chemistry during her 30+ years in education.</p> <p><b>Richard H. Langley, PhD,</b> is on the faculty of Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches,Texas, where he teaches chemistry. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9451"}},{"authorId":9452,"name":"Richard H. Langley","slug":"richard-h-langley","description":" <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> and <b>Richard H. Langley, PhD,</b> teach Chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University. Together they have more than 8.9 x 10<sup>1</sup> years of science education experience, and they have authored or coauthored oodles of books on chemistry topics.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9452"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;science&quot;,&quot;chemistry&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119883531&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6452cb8f8445e\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;science&quot;,&quot;chemistry&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119883531&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6452cb8f84b3f\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-05-03T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":154297},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2019-04-24T01:43:18+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-04-14T18:02:14+00:00","timestamp":"2024-04-14T21:01:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Science","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33756"},"slug":"science","categoryId":33756},{"name":"Chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"},"slug":"chemistry","categoryId":33762}],"title":"How to Convert Units Using Conversion Factors","strippedTitle":"how to convert units using conversion factors","slug":"convert-units-using-conversion-factors","canonicalUrl":"","检数据库索登录器SEO提升":{"metaDescription":"Learn how to quickly convert between measurement units using this handy conversion-factor chart and some simple algebra!","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"A <em>conversion factor</em> uses your knowledge of the relationships between units to convert from one unit to another. For example, if you know that there are 2.54 centimeters in every inch (or 2.2 pounds in every kilogram or 101.3 kilopascals in every atmosphere), then converting between those units becomes simple algebra. It is important to know <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/science/chemistry/chemistry-for-dummies-cheat-sheet-208625/\">some common conversions</a> of temperature, size, and pressure as well as metric prefixes.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Conversion factor table</h2>\r\nThe following table includes some useful conversion factors.\r\n\r\n<img class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-251837\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/CHEM_0501.jpg\" alt=\"CHEM_0501\" width=\"500\" height=\"708\" />\r\n\r\n \r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Using conversion factors example</h2>\r\nThe following example shows how to use a basic conversion factor to fix non-SI units.\r\n\r\nDr. Geekmajor absentmindedly measures the mass of a sample to be 0.75 lb and records his measurement in his lab notebook. His astute lab assistant, who wants to save the doctor some embarrassment, knows that there are 2.2 lbs in every kilogram. The assistant quickly converts the doctor’s measurement to SI units. What does she get?\r\n\r\nThe answer is <strong>0.34 kg</strong>.\r\n\r\n<img class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-251838\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/CHEM_0502.jpg\" alt=\"CHEM_0502\" width=\"201\" height=\"51\" />\r\n\r\nLet’s try another example. A chemistry student, daydreaming during lab, suddenly looks down to find that he’s measured the volume of his sample to be 1.5 cubic <em>inches.</em> What does he get when he converts this quantity to cubic centimeters?\r\n\r\nThe answer is <strong>25 cm<sup>3</sup></strong>.\r\n\r\n<img class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-251839\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/CHEM_0503.jpg\" alt=\"CHEM_0503\" width=\"404\" height=\"63\" />\r\n\r\nRookie chemists often mistakenly assume that if there are 2.54 centimeters in every inch, then there are 2.54 cubic centimeters in every cubic inch. No! Although this assumption seems logical at first glance, it leads to catastrophically wrong answers. Remember that cubic units are units of volume and that the formula for volume is\r\n\r\n<img class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-251840\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/CHEM_0504.jpg\" alt=\"CHEM_0504\" width=\"169\" height=\"23\" />\r\n\r\nImagine 1 cubic inch as a cube with 1-inch sides. The cube’s volume is\r\n\r\n<img class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-251841\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/CHEM_0505.jpg\" alt=\"CHEM_0505\" width=\"164\" height=\"24\" />\r\n\r\nNow consider the dimensions of the cube in centimeters:\r\n\r\n<img class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-251842\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/CHEM_0506.jpg\" alt=\"CHEM_0506\" width=\"211\" height=\"19\" />\r\n\r\nCalculate the volume using these measurements, and you get\r\n\r\n<img class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-251843\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/CHEM_0507.jpg\" alt=\"CHEM_0507\" width=\"305\" height=\"24\" />\r\n\r\nThis volume is much greater than 2.54 cm<sup><span style=\"font-size: small;\">3</span></sup>! To convert units of area or volume using length measurements, square or cube everything in your conversion factor, not just the units, and everything works out just fine.","description":"A <em>conversion factor</em> uses your knowledge of the relationships between units to convert from one unit to another. For example, if you know that there are 2.54 centimeters in every inch (or 2.2 pounds in every kilogram or 101.3 kilopascals in every atmosphere), then converting between those units becomes simple algebra. It is important to know <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/science/chemistry/chemistry-for-dummies-cheat-sheet-208625/\">some common conversions</a> of temperature, size, and pressure as well as metric prefixes.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Conversion factor table</h2>\r\nThe following table includes some useful conversion factors.\r\n\r\n<img class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-251837\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/CHEM_0501.jpg\" alt=\"CHEM_0501\" width=\"500\" height=\"708\" />\r\n\r\n \r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Using conversion factors example</h2>\r\nThe following example shows how to use a basic conversion factor to fix non-SI units.\r\n\r\nDr. Geekmajor absentmindedly measures the mass of a sample to be 0.75 lb and records his measurement in his lab notebook. His astute lab assistant, who wants to save the doctor some embarrassment, knows that there are 2.2 lbs in every kilogram. The assistant quickly converts the doctor’s measurement to SI units. What does she get?\r\n\r\nThe answer is <strong>0.34 kg</strong>.\r\n\r\n<img class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-251838\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/CHEM_0502.jpg\" alt=\"CHEM_0502\" width=\"201\" height=\"51\" />\r\n\r\nLet’s try another example. A chemistry student, daydreaming during lab, suddenly looks down to find that he’s measured the volume of his sample to be 1.5 cubic <em>inches.</em> What does he get when he converts this quantity to cubic centimeters?\r\n\r\nThe answer is <strong>25 cm<sup>3</sup></strong>.\r\n\r\n<img class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-251839\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/CHEM_0503.jpg\" alt=\"CHEM_0503\" width=\"404\" height=\"63\" />\r\n\r\nRookie chemists often mistakenly assume that if there are 2.54 centimeters in every inch, then there are 2.54 cubic centimeters in every cubic inch. No! Although this assumption seems logical at first glance, it leads to catastrophically wrong answers. Remember that cubic units are units of volume and that the formula for volume is\r\n\r\n<img class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-251840\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/CHEM_0504.jpg\" alt=\"CHEM_0504\" width=\"169\" height=\"23\" />\r\n\r\nImagine 1 cubic inch as a cube with 1-inch sides. The cube’s volume is\r\n\r\n<img class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-251841\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/CHEM_0505.jpg\" alt=\"CHEM_0505\" width=\"164\" height=\"24\" />\r\n\r\nNow consider the dimensions of the cube in centimeters:\r\n\r\n<img class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-251842\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/CHEM_0506.jpg\" alt=\"CHEM_0506\" width=\"211\" height=\"19\" />\r\n\r\nCalculate the volume using these measurements, and you get\r\n\r\n<img class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-251843\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/CHEM_0507.jpg\" alt=\"CHEM_0507\" width=\"305\" height=\"24\" />\r\n\r\nThis volume is much greater than 2.54 cm<sup><span style=\"font-size: small;\">3</span></sup>! To convert units of area or volume using length measurements, square or cube everything in your conversion factor, not just the units, and everything works out just fine.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9160,"name":"Chris Hren","slug":"chris-hren","description":" <p><b>Christopher Hren</b> is a high school chemistry teacher and former track and football coach. <b>Peter J. Mikulecky, PhD,</b> teaches biology and chemistry at Fusion Learning Center and Fusion Academy. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9160"}},{"authorId":9161,"name":"Peter J. Mikulecky","slug":"peter-j-mikulecky","description":" <p><b>Christopher R. Hren </b>has taught high school chemistry, honors chemistry, and AP Chemistry for more than 15 years. <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> has taught chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas, for more than 40 years. <p><b>Peter J. Mikulecky, PhD,</b> teaches science and math at Fusion Learning Center and Fusion Academy, and is a technical writer. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9161"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33762,"title":"Chemistry","slug":"chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Conversion factor table","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Using conversion factors example","target":"#tab2"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":253707,"title":"How to Make Unit Conversions","slug":"make-unit-conversions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253707"}},{"articleId":251010,"title":"How to Build Derived Units from Base Units","slug":"build-derived-units-base-units","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251010"}},{"articleId":251005,"title":"How to Do Arithmetic with Significant Figures","slug":"arithmetic-significant-figures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251005"}},{"articleId":250992,"title":"How to Add and Subtract with Exponential Notation","slug":"add-subtract-exponential-notation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/250992"}},{"articleId":250969,"title":"How to Multiply and Divide in Scientific Notation","slug":"multiply-divide-scientific-notation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/250969"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":295575,"title":"Chemistry All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"chemistry-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/295575"}},{"articleId":253707,"title":"How to Make Unit Conversions","slug":"make-unit-conversions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253707"}},{"articleId":251010,"title":"How to Build Derived Units from Base Units","slug":"build-derived-units-base-units","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251010"}},{"articleId":251005,"title":"How to Do Arithmetic with Significant Figures","slug":"arithmetic-significant-figures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251005"}},{"articleId":250992,"title":"How to Add and Subtract with Exponential Notation","slug":"add-subtract-exponential-notation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/250992"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282070,"slug":"chemistry-workbook-for-dummies-with-online-practice-3rd-edition","isbn":"9781119357452","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119357454/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119357454/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119357454-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119357454/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119357454/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/chemistry-workbook-for-dummies-3rd-edition-cover-9781119357452-204x255.jpg","width":204,"height":255},"title":"Chemistry Workbook For Dummies with Online Practice","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9160\">Christopher Hren</b> is a high school chemistry teacher and former track and football coach. <b data-author-id=\"9161\">Peter J. Mikulecky, PhD,</b> teaches biology and chemistry at Fusion Learning Center and Fusion Academy. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9160,"name":"Chris Hren","slug":"chris-hren","description":" <p><b>Christopher Hren</b> is a high school chemistry teacher and former track and football coach. <b>Peter J. Mikulecky, PhD,</b> teaches biology and chemistry at Fusion Learning Center and Fusion Academy. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9160"}},{"authorId":9161,"name":"Peter J. Mikulecky","slug":"peter-j-mikulecky","description":" <p><b>Christopher R. Hren </b>has taught high school chemistry, honors chemistry, and AP Chemistry for more than 15 years. <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> has taught chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas, for more than 40 years. <p><b>Peter J. Mikulecky, PhD,</b> teaches science and math at Fusion Learning Center and Fusion Academy, and is a technical writer. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9161"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;science&quot;,&quot;chemistry&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119357452&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6439bf0eb24a3\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;science&quot;,&quot;chemistry&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119357452&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6439bf0eb3584\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-07-24T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":251836},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:56:16+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-01-09T20:39:46+00:00","timestamp":"2024-01-09T21:01:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Science","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33756"},"slug":"science","categoryId":33756},{"name":"Chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"},"slug":"chemistry","categoryId":33762}],"title":"Organic Chemistry II For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"organic chemistry ii for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"organic-chemistry-ii-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","检数据库索登录器SEO提升":{"metaDescription":"This Organic Chemistry II Cheat Sheet includes tips for doing well in your class and for preparing for an exam.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Organic Chemistry II is one of the toughest courses you can take. Surviving isn’t easy — you probably know that from your Organic Chemistry I class. Preparation is key: If you study the <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/education/science/biology/the-basics-of-organic-chemistry/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">basics of organic chemistry</a> the right way, prepare for your tests, and know your aromatic systems, you’re off to a great start!","description":"Organic Chemistry II is one of the toughest courses you can take. Surviving isn’t easy — you probably know that from your Organic Chemistry I class. Preparation is key: If you study the <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/education/science/biology/the-basics-of-organic-chemistry/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">basics of organic chemistry</a> the right way, prepare for your tests, and know your aromatic systems, you’re off to a great start!","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9159,"name":"John T. Moore","slug":"john-t-moore","description":" <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> is Regents Professor of Chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas. He is the author of <i>Chemistry For Dummies.</i> <b>Richard H. Langley, PhD,</b> teaches chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University. Langley and Moore are coauthors of <i>Biochemistry For Dummies.</i> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9159"}},{"authorId":9452,"name":"Richard H. Langley","slug":"richard-h-langley","description":" <p><b>Heather Hattori</b> has taught both high school and college level chemistry during her 30+ years in education.</p> <p><b>Richard H. Langley, PhD,</b> is on the faculty of Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches,Texas, where he teaches chemistry. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9452"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33762,"title":"Chemistry","slug":"chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":192496,"title":"Organic Chemistry II: Directing Groups for Aromatic Systems","slug":"organic-chemistry-ii-directing-groups-for-aromatic-systems","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192496"}},{"articleId":192491,"title":"Study Tips for Organic Chemistry II","slug":"study-tips-for-organic-chemistry-ii","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192491"}},{"articleId":192486,"title":"Tips for Taking an Organic Chemistry II Exam","slug":"tips-for-taking-an-organic-chemistry-ii-exam","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192486"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":295575,"title":"Chemistry All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"chemistry-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/295575"}},{"articleId":253707,"title":"How to Make Unit Conversions","slug":"make-unit-conversions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253707"}},{"articleId":251836,"title":"How to Convert between Units Using Conversion Factors","slug":"convert-units-using-conversion-factors","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251836"}},{"articleId":251010,"title":"How to Build Derived Units from Base Units","slug":"build-derived-units-base-units","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251010"}},{"articleId":251005,"title":"How to Do Arithmetic with Significant Figures","slug":"arithmetic-significant-figures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251005"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282436,"slug":"organic-chemistry-ii-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119985174","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/111998517X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/111998517X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/111998517X-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/111998517X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/111998517X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/organic-chemistry-ii-for-dummies-cover-9781119985174-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Organic Chemistry II For Dummies, 2nd Edition","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"9159\">John T. Moore</b>, EdD,</b> is Regents Professor of Chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas. He is the author of <i>Chemistry For Dummies.</i> <b>Richard H. Langley, PhD,</b> teaches chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University. Langley and Moore are coauthors of <i>Biochemistry For Dummies.</i> <p><b>Heather Hattori</b> has taught both high school and college level chemistry during her 30+ years in education.</p> <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9452\">Richard H. Langley</b>, PhD,</b> is on the faculty of Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches,Texas, where he teaches chemistry.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9159,"name":"John T. Moore","slug":"john-t-moore","description":" <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> is Regents Professor of Chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas. He is the author of <i>Chemistry For Dummies.</i> <b>Richard H. Langley, PhD,</b> teaches chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University. Langley and Moore are coauthors of <i>Biochemistry For Dummies.</i> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9159"}},{"authorId":9452,"name":"Richard H. Langley","slug":"richard-h-langley","description":" <p><b>Heather Hattori</b> has taught both high school and college level chemistry during her 30+ years in education.</p> <p><b>Richard H. Langley, PhD,</b> is on the faculty of Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches,Texas, where he teaches chemistry. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9452"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;science&quot;,&quot;chemistry&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119985174&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63bc808ec13d6\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;science&quot;,&quot;chemistry&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119985174&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63bc808ec24fc\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":192491,"title":"Study Tips for Organic Chemistry II","slug":"study-tips-for-organic-chemistry-ii","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192491"}},{"articleId":192486,"title":"Tips for Taking an Organic Chemistry II Exam","slug":"tips-for-taking-an-organic-chemistry-ii-exam","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192486"}},{"articleId":192496,"title":"Organic Chemistry II: Directing Groups for Aromatic Systems","slug":"organic-chemistry-ii-directing-groups-for-aromatic-systems","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192496"}}],"content":[{"title":"Study tips for organic chemistry","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Organic Chemistry II doesn’t have to be as difficult as you think. Follow these study tips to improve your understanding of organic chemistry, from carbon atom bonds to unnamed reactions, and everything in between:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Don’t simply memorize concepts, learn the concepts by working exercises.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Keep up with the material by studying Organic Chemistry II a minimum of six days a week.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Buy and use a model kit.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">For each reaction you study, know where and why the electrons are moving.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Learn those named (and unnamed) reactions.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Use other resources in addition to your textbook (like the excellent <i>Organic Chemistry II For Dummies, </i>written by John T. Moore and Richard H. Langley and published by Wiley).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Read ahead in your textbook before class.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Take really good class notes and recopy them as soon as possible.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">If you need help, ask questions.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Tips for taking an Organic Chemistry II exam","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Taking an Organic Chemistry II test has a completely deserved reputation for being tough. Make life easier by following these tips before you take your next organic chemistry exam:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Remember that the carbon atom forms four bonds.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Don’t cram the night (or even a week) before a test.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Attend class religiously.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Correct the mistakes you made on previous exams and don’t make the same mistakes again.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Assign formal charges and use them to help decide most probable structure, sites for nucleophilic/electrophilic attack, and so on.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">When writing an organic reaction, be sure you don’t lose any carbon atoms.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Relax and get enough sleep the night before an exam.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Include E/Z, R/S, and cis/trans prefixes when naming organic structures.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Think of spectroscopic data, especially NMR, as puzzle pieces and try to fit them together.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Work problem sets and practice exams twice.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">If you find you’ve drawn a compound in which a carbon doesn’t have four bonds, go back to the beginning of this list.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Organic Chemistry II: Directing groups for aromatic systems","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>In an Organic Chemistry II class you often add groups to aromatic systems. If you’re wondering where the substitution will take place, check out this table for some guidelines. When using this table, remember two things:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><i>O-p</i>-directors always beat <i>m</i>-directors.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Strong activators always beat weak activators.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><strong>Classification of Various Aromatic Substituents</strong></p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Ortho-Para-Directors</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Very Strong Activators</td>\n<td>-NH<sub>2</sub>, -NHR, -NR<sub>2</sub>, -OH,<br />\n-O<sup>–</sup></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Moderate Activators</td>\n<td>-OR, -NH-CO-R, -O-CO-R</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Weak Activators</td>\n<td>-R, -C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>5</sub></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Mild Deactivators</td>\n<td>-F, -Cl, -Br, -I</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<th>Meta-Directors</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Very Strong Deactivators</td>\n<td>-N<sup>+</sup>R<sub>3</sub>, -NO<sub>2</sub>, -CN,<br />\n-CCl<sub>3</sub>, -CF<sub>3</sub></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Moderate to Mild Deactivators</td>\n<td>-CN, -SO<sub>3</sub>H, -CO-R, -COOH, -COOR, -CONH<sub>2</sub>,<br />\n-N<sup>+</sup>H<sub>3</sub></td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-01-09T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":209020},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2023-11-07T16:40:29+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-11-08T14:15:33+00:00","timestamp":"2023-11-08T15:01:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Science","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33756"},"slug":"science","categoryId":33756},{"name":"Chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"},"slug":"chemistry","categoryId":33762}],"title":"Chemistry All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"chemistry all-in-one for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"chemistry-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","检数据库索登录器SEO提升":{"metaDescription":"Chemistry covers all kinds of stuff. Sometimes you might not be sure where to start when you are first given a set of problems and told to go forth and succeed.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Chemistry covers all kinds of stuff. Sometimes you might not be sure where to start when you are first given a set of problems and told to go forth and succeed. Sometimes it’s converting metric units, writing ionic formulas, naming covalent compounds, balancing reactions, or dealing with extensive and intensive properties.\r\n\r\nThis Cheat Sheet is designed to give you some help on a few of the trickier things you might encounter so that when you are done looking it over you can go forth and succeed!","description":"Chemistry covers all kinds of stuff. Sometimes you might not be sure where to start when you are first given a set of problems and told to go forth and succeed. Sometimes it’s converting metric units, writing ionic formulas, naming covalent compounds, balancing reactions, or dealing with extensive and intensive properties.\r\n\r\nThis Cheat Sheet is designed to give you some help on a few of the trickier things you might encounter so that when you are done looking it over you can go forth and succeed!","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":35209,"name":"Christopher R. Hren","slug":"christopher-r-hren","description":" <p><b>Christopher R. Hren </b>has taught high school chemistry, honors chemistry, and AP Chemistry for more than 15 years. <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> has taught chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas, for more than 40 years. <p><b>Peter J. Mikulecky, PhD,</b> teaches science and math at Fusion Learning Center and Fusion Academy, and is a technical writer. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35209"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33762,"title":"Chemistry","slug":"chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":253707,"title":"How to Make Unit Conversions","slug":"make-unit-conversions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253707"}},{"articleId":251836,"title":"How to Convert between Units Using Conversion Factors","slug":"convert-units-using-conversion-factors","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251836"}},{"articleId":251010,"title":"How to Build Derived Units from Base Units","slug":"build-derived-units-base-units","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251010"}},{"articleId":251005,"title":"How to Do Arithmetic with Significant Figures","slug":"arithmetic-significant-figures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251005"}},{"articleId":250992,"title":"How to Add and Subtract with Exponential Notation","slug":"add-subtract-exponential-notation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/250992"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":295574,"slug":"chemistry-all-in-one-for-dummies-chapter-quizzes-online","isbn":"9781119908319","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119908310/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119908310/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119908310-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119908310/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119908310/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"title":"Chemistry All-in-One For Dummies (+ Chapter Quizzes Online)","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"35209\">Christopher R. Hren</b> </b>has taught high school chemistry, honors chemistry, and AP Chemistry for more than 15 years. <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> has taught chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas, for more than 40 years. <p><b>Peter J. Mikulecky, PhD,</b> teaches science and math at Fusion Learning Center and Fusion Academy, and is a technical writer. <p><b>Christopher R. Hren </b>has taught high school chemistry, honors chemistry, and AP Chemistry for more than 15 years. <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9159\">John T. Moore</b>, EdD,</b> has taught chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas, for more than 40 years. <p><b>Peter J. Mikulecky, PhD,</b> teaches science and math at Fusion Learning Center and Fusion Academy, and is a technical writer. <p><b>Christopher R. Hren </b>has taught high school chemistry, honors chemistry, and AP Chemistry for more than 15 years. <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> has taught chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas, for more than 40 years. <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9161\">Peter J. Mikulecky</b>, PhD,</b> teaches science and math at Fusion Learning Center and Fusion Academy, and is a technical writer.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":35209,"name":"Christopher R. Hren","slug":"christopher-r-hren","description":" <p><b>Christopher R. Hren </b>has taught high school chemistry, honors chemistry, and AP Chemistry for more than 15 years. <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> has taught chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas, for more than 40 years. <p><b>Peter J. Mikulecky, PhD,</b> teaches science and math at Fusion Learning Center and Fusion Academy, and is a technical writer. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35209"}},{"authorId":9159,"name":"John T. Moore","slug":"john-t-moore","description":" <p><b>Christopher R. Hren </b>has taught high school chemistry, honors chemistry, and AP Chemistry for more than 15 years. <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> has taught chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas, for more than 40 years. <p><b>Peter J. Mikulecky, PhD,</b> teaches science and math at Fusion Learning Center and Fusion Academy, and is a technical writer. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9159"}},{"authorId":9161,"name":"Peter J. Mikulecky","slug":"peter-j-mikulecky","description":" <p><b>Christopher R. Hren </b>has taught high school chemistry, honors chemistry, and AP Chemistry for more than 15 years. <p><b>John T. Moore, EdD,</b> has taught chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas, for more than 40 years. <p><b>Peter J. Mikulecky, PhD,</b> teaches science and math at Fusion Learning Center and Fusion Academy, and is a technical writer. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9161"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;science&quot;,&quot;chemistry&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119908319&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-636a6f2eb4b65\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;science&quot;,&quot;chemistry&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119908319&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-636a6f2eb5a50\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":0,"title":"","slug":null,"categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/"}}],"content":[{"title":"Converting metric units","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Because chemists must be able to communicate their measurements to other chemists all over the world, they need to speak the same measurement language. This language is the SI system of measurement, related to the metric system.</p>\n<p>Below is a chart of the most commonly used metric prefixes, their abbreviations, and how they relate to a metric base unit. Remember, the metric system is based on 10s, so each time you are converting from one unit to another you can just count the number of jumps between prefixes to have an idea of what your conversion should be.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td><strong>Prefix</strong></td>\n<td><strong>Abbreviation</strong></td>\n<td><strong>Meaning</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>kilo-</td>\n<td>k</td>\n<td>1,000 or 10<sup>3</sup></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>hecto-</td>\n<td>h</td>\n<td>100 or 10<sup>2</sup></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>deka- or deca-</td>\n<td>da</td>\n<td>10 or 10<sup>1</sup></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>deci-</td>\n<td>d</td>\n<td>0.1 or 10<sup>–1</sup></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>centi-</td>\n<td>c</td>\n<td>0.01 or 10<sup>–2</sup></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>milli-</td>\n<td>m</td>\n<td>0.001 or 10<sup>–3</sup></td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>For example, if you want to convert 500 ml to liters, all you have to do is multiply that by the conversion shown in the chart for milli as shown below. Be sure to cancel out your units!</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-295577\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/chem-formula.png\" alt=\"equation to convert 500 ml to liters\" width=\"220\" height=\"78\" /></p>\n<p><strong>Writing the formulas of ionic compounds</strong></p>\n<p>A quick way to determine the formula of an ionic compound (remember ionic compounds are metals bonded to nonmetals) is to use the <em>crisscross rule</em>. The crisscross rule uses the ionic charges of the ions to predict the formula of the ionic compound. It doesn’t work every time but it is a very useful method for writing many ionic formulas. Check it out as shown here:</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-295578\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119908319-fgcs01.jpg\" alt=\"Diagram of crisscross rule in chemistry\" width=\"250\" height=\"108\" /></p>\n<p>Take the numerical value of the metal ion’s superscript (forget about the charge symbol) and move it to the bottom right-hand side of the nonmetal’s symbol — as a subscript. Then take the numerical value of the nonmetal’s superscript and make it the subscript of the metal. (Note that if the numerical value is 1, it’s just understood and not shown.)</p>\n<p>So, in this example, you make magnesium’s 2 a subscript of bromine and make bromine’s 1 a subscript of magnesium (but because it’s 1, you don’t show it), and you get the formula MgBr<sub>2</sub>.</p>\n"},{"title":"Naming covalent compounds","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Covalent compounds are nonmetals to nonmetals. These differ from ionic compounds in that their names clearly specify how many of each type of atom participate in the compound. The table below shows you the prefixes used when naming covalent compounds.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td><strong>Number of Atoms</strong></td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Prefix</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>1</td>\n<td>mono-</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>2</td>\n<td>di-</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>3</td>\n<td>tri-</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>4</td>\n<td>tetra-</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>5</td>\n<td>penta-</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>6</td>\n<td>hexa-</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>7</td>\n<td>hepta-</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>8</td>\n<td>octa-</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>9</td>\n<td>nona-</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>10</td>\n<td>deca-</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>You can attach the prefixes in the table above to any of the elements in a covalent compound, as exemplified by SO<sub>3</sub> (sulfur trioxide) and N<sub>2</sub>O (dinitrogen monoxide). The second element in each compound receives the &#8211;<em>ide</em> suffix, as in ionic compounds (which we discuss earlier in this chapter).</p>\n<p>In the case of covalent compounds, where cations or anions aren’t involved, the more electronegative element (in other words, the element that’s closer to the upper right-hand corner of the periodic table) tends to be named second.</p>\n<p>Finally, if the compound only has 1 atom for the first element you can leave off mono as the prefix. For example, you don’t call CO<sub>2</sub> monocarbon dioxide. Instead, you just call it carbon dioxide.</p>\n"},{"title":"Balancing reactions","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Balancing chemical reactions can be a real challenge for some people. Sometimes just getting started is a real challenge. The example below shows how to balance a combustion reaction. There is a good chance that if you are here reading this you might be stuck on a combustion reaction, so make sure to read on. Even if not, this example is going to give you a solid idea of how to go about balancing any reaction you encounter.</p>\n<ol>\n<li>\n<p><strong>Start with the unbalanced reaction written out</strong>.</p>\n<p>C<sub>4</sub>H<sub>10</sub>(<em>g</em>) + O<sub>2</sub>(<em>g</em>) ®CO<sub>2</sub>(<em>g</em>) + H<sub>2</sub>O(<em>g</em>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p><strong>Balance the carbon atoms first</strong>.</p>\n<p>Remember: You want to wait until the end to balance hydrogen and oxygen atoms. You have 4 carbon atoms on the left and 1 carbon atom on the right, so put a coefficient of 4 in front of the carbon dioxide:</p>\n<p>C<sub>4</sub>H<sub>10</sub>(<em>g</em>) + O<sub>2</sub>(<em>g</em>) ® 4 CO<sub>2</sub>(<em>g</em>) + H<sub>2</sub>O(<em>g</em>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p><strong><strong>When all non-hydrogen and non-oxygen atoms are balanced, balance the hydrogen atoms.</strong></p>\n<p>Carbon is the only other atom in this example, so you can move on to hydrogen now. You have 10 hydrogen atoms on the left and 2 hydrogen atoms on the right, so use a coefficient of 5 in front of the water on the right:C<sub>4</sub>H<sub>10</sub>(<em>g</em>) + O<sub>2</sub>(<em>g</em>) ®4 CO<sub>2</sub>(<em>g</em>) + <strong>5</strong> H<sub>2</sub>O(<em>g</em>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p><strong>Balance the oxygen atoms</strong>.</p>\n<p>You have 2 oxygen atoms on the left and a total of 13 oxygen atoms on the right [(4 × 2) + (5 × 1) = 13]. What can you multiply 2 with in order for it to equal 13? How about 6.5?</p>\n<p>C<sub>4</sub>H<sub>10</sub>(<em>g</em>) + <strong>6.5</strong> O<sub>2</sub>(<em>g</em>) ®4 CO<sub>2</sub>(<em>g</em>) + 5 H<sub>2</sub>O(<em>g</em>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p><strong>Multiply all coefficients in the equation to get the lowest <em>whole-number</em> ratio of coefficients</strong>.</p>\n<p>For this example, multiply the entire equation by 2 (just the coefficients, please) in order to generate whole numbers:</p>\n<p>[C<sub>4</sub>H<sub>10</sub>(<em>g</em>) + 6.5 O<sub>2</sub>(<em>g</em>®4 CO<sub>2</sub>(<em>g</em>) + 5 H<sub>2</sub>O(<em>g</em>)] ×2</p>\n<p>Multiplying every coefficient by 2 (don’t touch the subscripts!) gives you</p>\n<p>2 C<sub>4</sub>H<sub>10</sub>(<em>g</em>) + 13 O<sub>2</sub>(<em>g</em>) ®8 CO<sub>2</sub>(<em>g</em>) + 10 H<sub>2</sub>O(<em>g</em>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p><strong>Check the atom count on both sides of the equation to ensure that the equation is balanced and the coefficients are in the lowest whole-number ratio</strong>.</p>\n</li>\n</ol>\n<p>This is a pretty complex example and hopefully it helps you out. Sometimes, though, all you might need to do is add a single coefficient of 2 or 3 in front of one compound. Just stay organized and keep things simple and you’ll be balancing reactions in no time!</p>\n"},{"title":"Extensive and intensive properties","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>There are all kinds of ways you can classify matter. One is to look at the different physical properties that that matter has. There are two major types of physical properties:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Extensive Properties:</strong> properties that depend on the amount of matter present\n<p>Examples: mass, volume, length, width or anything else that depends entirely on how much of the substance you have</li>\n<li><strong>Intensive Properties:</strong> properties that don’t depend on the amount of matter present\n<p>Examples: density, malleability, ductileness, hardness, melting point</li>\n</ul>\n<p>A helpful way to remember this is that intensive properties rely on what is “in”-side the matter, with the “in” signifying <em>intensive</em> and how it doesn’t matter how much of the matter is present.</p>\n<p>Extensive properties rely on the “ext”-erior of the matter, with the “ext” signifying <em>extensive</em> and the fact that now, the amount of what you see on the exterior of the matter does impact the property.</p>\n<p>Some physical properties are <em>extensive properties,</em> properties that depend on the amount of matter present. Mass and volume are extensive properties. A large chunk of gold has a larger mass and volume than a smaller chunk.</p>\n<p><em>Intensive properties,</em> however, don’t depend on the amount of matter present. Hardness is an intensive property. A large chunk of gold, for example, has the same hardness as a small chunk of gold. The mass and volume of these two chunks are different (extensive properties), but the hardness is the same.</p>\n<p>Intensive properties are especially useful to chemists because they can use intensive properties to identify a substance.</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-11-07T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":295575},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T21:23:28+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-09-27T18:37:05+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-27T21:01:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Science","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33756"},"slug":"science","categoryId":33756},{"name":"Chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"},"slug":"chemistry","categoryId":33762}],"title":"Periodic Table of Elements","strippedTitle":"periodic table of elements","slug":"periodic-table-of-elements","canonicalUrl":"","检数据库索登录器SEO提升":{"metaDescription":"Studying the elements of the periodic table is vital for understanding organic chemistry. The elements are grouped by their properties.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Studying the elements of the periodic table is vital for understanding organic chemistry. So that you don't have to memorize each element, they're grouped together by their properties.\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/195509.image0.jpg\" alt=\"image0.jpg\" width=\"535\" height=\"373\" />","description":"Studying the elements of the periodic table is vital for understanding organic chemistry. So that you don't have to memorize each element, they're grouped together by their properties.\r\n\r\n<img src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/195509.image0.jpg\" alt=\"image0.jpg\" width=\"535\" height=\"373\" />","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9321,"name":"Arthur Winter","slug":"arthur-winter","description":" <p><B>Arthur Winter, PhD, </b>is the author of the popular <i>Organic Chemistry Help!</i> website chemhelper.com and <i>Organic Chemistry I For Dummies</i>. His professional focus is on the chemistry of magneto-organic materials. </p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9321"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33762,"title":"Chemistry","slug":"chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":209032,"title":"Organic Chemistry I Workbook For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"organic-chemistry-1-workbook-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/209032"}},{"articleId":192632,"title":"Important Concepts of Organic Chemistry","slug":"important-concepts-of-organic-chemistry","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/192632"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":253707,"title":"How to Make Unit Conversions","slug":"make-unit-conversions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253707"}},{"articleId":251836,"title":"How to Convert between Units Using Conversion Factors","slug":"convert-units-using-conversion-factors","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251836"}},{"articleId":251010,"title":"How to Build Derived Units from Base Units","slug":"build-derived-units-base-units","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251010"}},{"articleId":251005,"title":"How to Do Arithmetic with Significant Figures","slug":"arithmetic-significant-figures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251005"}},{"articleId":250992,"title":"How to Add and Subtract with Exponential Notation","slug":"add-subtract-exponential-notation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/250992"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282435,"slug":"organic-chemistry-i-workbook-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119855774","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119855772/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119855772/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119855772-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119855772/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119855772/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781119855774-2-204x255.jpg","width":204,"height":255},"title":"Organic Chemistry I Workbook For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><B><b data-author-id=\"9321\">Arthur Winter</b>, PhD, </b>is the author of the popular <i>Organic Chemistry Help!</i> website chemhelper.com and <i>Organic Chemistry I For Dummies</i>. His professional focus is on the chemistry of magneto-organic materials. </p>","authors":[{"authorId":9321,"name":"Arthur Winter","slug":"arthur-winter","description":" <p><B>Arthur Winter, PhD, </b>is the author of the popular <i>Organic Chemistry Help!</i> website chemhelper.com and <i>Organic Chemistry I For Dummies</i>. 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Chemistry II is more about solving calculations. In fact, Chemistry II has a lot more calculations and math than your Chemistry I class did. In your Chemistry II class, you need to master several formulas so you can calculate different mathematical problems, ranging from kinetics, different types of equilibrium, thermochemistry, and electrochemistry.\r\n\r\nThis Cheat Sheet can serve as a quick reference to how to solve kinetics, thermodynamics, and different types of equilibrium problems.","description":"Chemistry II is more than fires and smelly explosions. Chemistry II is more about solving calculations. In fact, Chemistry II has a lot more calculations and math than your Chemistry I class did. In your Chemistry II class, you need to master several formulas so you can calculate different mathematical problems, ranging from kinetics, different types of equilibrium, thermochemistry, and electrochemistry.\r\n\r\nThis Cheat Sheet can serve as a quick reference to how to solve kinetics, thermodynamics, and different types of equilibrium problems.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9159,"name":"John T. Moore","slug":"john-t-moore","description":" <p><b>John T. Moore</b>, EdD, is regents professor of chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University, where he teaches chemistry and is codirector of the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Research Center. He is the author of <i>Biochemistry For Dummies</i> and <i>Chemistry For Dummies</i>, 2nd Edition.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9159"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33762,"title":"Chemistry","slug":"chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":175673,"title":"Calculating Solubility Equilibrium Problems","slug":"calculating-solubility-equilibrium-problems","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/175673"}},{"articleId":175671,"title":"Tackling Thermodynamics Problems","slug":"tackling-thermodynamics-problems","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/175671"}},{"articleId":175669,"title":"How to Solve Homogeneous Equilibrium Problems","slug":"how-to-solve-homogeneous-equilibrium-problems","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/175669"}},{"articleId":175668,"title":"How to Calculate Kinetics Problems","slug":"how-to-calculate-kinetics-problems","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/175668"}},{"articleId":175665,"title":"Solving Acid-Base Equilibrium Problems","slug":"solving-acid-base-equilibrium-problems","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/175665"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":253707,"title":"How to Make Unit Conversions","slug":"make-unit-conversions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/253707"}},{"articleId":251836,"title":"How to Convert between Units Using Conversion Factors","slug":"convert-units-using-conversion-factors","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251836"}},{"articleId":251010,"title":"How to Build Derived Units from Base Units","slug":"build-derived-units-base-units","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251010"}},{"articleId":251005,"title":"How to Do Arithmetic with Significant Figures","slug":"arithmetic-significant-figures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/251005"}},{"articleId":250992,"title":"How to Add and Subtract with Exponential Notation","slug":"add-subtract-exponential-notation","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/250992"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282069,"slug":"chemistry-ii-for-dummies","isbn":"9781118164907","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","chemistry"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1118164903/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1118164903/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1118164903-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1118164903/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1118164903/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/chemistry-ii-for-dummies-cover-9781118164907-202x255.jpg","width":202,"height":255},"title":"Chemistry II For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9159\">John T. Moore</b>, EdD, is regents professor of chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University, where he teaches chemistry and is codirector of the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Research Center. He is the author of <i>Biochemistry For Dummies</i> and <i>Chemistry For Dummies</i>, 2nd Edition.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9159,"name":"John T. Moore","slug":"john-t-moore","description":" <p><b>John T. Moore</b>, EdD, is regents professor of chemistry at Stephen F. Austin State University, where he teaches chemistry and is codirector of the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Research Center. 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Knowing the concepts of kinetics can help your understanding of why some reactions are fast and others slow and why some simple reactions are slow and other, more complex reactions are fast.</p>\n<p>The <i>reaction rate</i> (the speed of reaction) is the change in the concentration of a reactant or product per the change in time. You can write it as:</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/323984.image0.jpg\" alt=\"image0.jpg\" width=\"227\" height=\"29\" /></p>\n<p>Chemists normally measure concentration in terms of molarity, M, and time is usually expressed in seconds, s, which means that the units of the reaction rate are M/s. You can express the number of units in other ways such as:</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/323985.image1.jpg\" alt=\"image1.jpg\" width=\"174\" height=\"24\" /></p>\n"},{"title":"How to solve homogeneous equilibrium problems","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The <i>equilibrium constant</i> describes the relationship between the amounts of the reactants and the products at a certain temperature. You&#8217;ll need to know the equilibrium constant as you study Chemistry II. For the general equilibrium:</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/323988.image0.png\" alt=\"image0.png\" width=\"111\" height=\"13\" /></p>\n<p>the equilibrium constant expression is:</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/323989.image1.jpg\" alt=\"image1.jpg\" width=\"81\" height=\"37\" /></p>\n<p>In the expression, K is the equilibrium constant, the subscript <i>c</i> indicates this constant is expressed in terms of concentrations (not pressures, p), the brackets (as usual) stand for molar (moles/L) concentration, the uppercase letters are the reactant and product species, and the lowercase superscripts are the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation.</p>\n"},{"title":"Solving acid-base equilibrium problems","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The <i>acid and base equilibrium constant</i> expressions describe the relationship between the amounts of reactants and products in aqueous acid-base systems. For the following general weak-acid equilibrium:</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/323992.image0.jpg\" alt=\"image0.jpg\" width=\"162\" height=\"16\" /></p>\n<p>the equilibrium constant expression is:</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/323993.image1.jpg\" alt=\"image1.jpg\" width=\"89\" height=\"36\" /></p>\n<p>For a general weak-base equilibrium:</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/323994.image2.jpg\" alt=\"image2.jpg\" width=\"235\" height=\"16\" /></p>\n<p>the equilibrium constant expression is:</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/323995.image3.jpg\" alt=\"image3.jpg\" width=\"107\" height=\"36\" /></p>\n<p>The concentration of water (or any pure liquid or solvent or solid) does appear in the equilibrium constant expression. K is the equilibrium constant, the subscript <i>b</i> indicates that this is an equilibrium constant expression for a weak base, and the brackets indicate molar concentrations.</p>\n"},{"title":"Calculating solubility equilibrium problems","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The <i>solubility product equation</i> is used to describe the equilibrium situation when a not-so-soluble salt is dissolving in water. For the general dissociation of a sparingly soluble salt:</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/323998.image0.jpg\" alt=\"image0.jpg\" width=\"192\" height=\"16\" /></p>\n<p>In this equation, <i>x</i>+ and <i>z</i>– are the magnitude of the positive and negative charge, respectively; the equilibrium constant expression (solubility product expression) is</p>\n<p>K<sub>sp</sub> = [M<i><sup>x</sup></i><sup>+</sup>]<sup>a</sup>[X<i><sup>z</sup></i><i><sup>–</sup></i>]<sup>b</sup></p>\n"},{"title":"Tackling thermodynamics problems","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The <em>Gibbs Free Energy</em> is the best indicator about whether a reaction will be spontaneous or nonspontaneous. You&#8217;ll need to know this as you study Chemistry II. It has the form:</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/324001.image0.jpg\" alt=\"image0.jpg\" width=\"171\" height=\"15\" /></p>\n<p>In this equation ΔG° is the Gibbs Free Energy of a reaction under standard conditions of 1 atm (or 1 bar) for gases and 1 M for solutions at 25°C; ΔH° is the enthalpy of the reaction under standard conditions; T is the Kelvin temperature; and ΔS° is the entropy of the reaction under standard conditions.</p>\n<p>A spontaneous process has °G &lt; 0. A nonspontaneous process has ΔG &gt; 0. When °G = 0, the process is at equilibrium.</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-04-08T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208297},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:56:51+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-02-24T15:39:39+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:13+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Science","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33756"},"slug":"science","categoryId":33756},{"name":"Chemistry","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33762"},"slug":"chemistry","categoryId":33762}],"title":"Organic Chemistry I For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"organic chemistry i for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"organic-chemistry-i-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","检数据库索登录器SEO提升":{"metaDescription":"Get a good grasp of the basics of organic chemistry, including the periodic table of elements and reactive centers.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"You won't get very far in your <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/education/science/biology/the-basics-of-organic-chemistry/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">study of organic chemistry</a> without the periodic table of elements and an understanding of the common functional groups (or reactive centers) that dictate how most of a compound's chemical reactions occur.","description":"You won't get very far in your <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/education/science/biology/the-basics-of-organic-chemistry/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">study of organic chemistry</a> without the periodic table of elements and an understanding of the common functional groups (or reactive centers) that dictate how most of a compound's chemical reactions occur.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9321,"name":"Arthur Winter","slug":"arthur-winter","description":" <p><B>Arthur Winter, PhD, </b>is the author of the popular <i>Organic Chemistry Help!</i> website chemhelper.com and <i>Organic Chemistry I For Dummies</i>. 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So that you don&#8217;t have to memorize each element, they&#8217;re grouped together by their properties.</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/195509.image0.jpg\" alt=\"image0.jpg\" width=\"535\" height=\"373\" /></p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two 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