chơi xổ số keno trực tuyến

{"appState":{"pageLoadApiCallsStatus":true},"categoryState":{"relatedCategories":{"headers":{"timestamp":"2025-03-04T08:01:09+00:00"},"categoryId":33695,"data":{"title":"French","slug":"french","image":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Learning Languages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33689"},"slug":"learning-languages","categoryId":33689},{"name":"French","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"},"slug":"french","categoryId":33695}],"parentCategory":{"categoryId":33689,"title":"Learning Languages","slug":"learning-languages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33689"}},"childCategories":[],"description":"Bonjour! Dozens of articles to help you work, travel, and play in one of the world's most beautiful languages.","relatedArticles":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles?category=33695&offset=0&size=5"},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":122,"bookCount":8},"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"}},"relatedCategoriesLoadedStatus":"success"},"listState":{"list":{"count":10,"total":122,"items":[{"headers":{"creationTime":"2023-11-29T18:56:10+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-09-13T18:38:35+00:00","timestamp":"2024-09-13T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Learning Languages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33689"},"slug":"learning-languages","categoryId":33689},{"name":"French","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"},"slug":"french","categoryId":33695}],"title":"French Workbook For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"french workbook for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"french-workbook-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜所搜素座舱seo":{"metaDescription":"This Cheat Sheet is a handy reference for learning French; it includes articles, contractions, personal pronouns, and more.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Keep this Cheat Sheet handy as you're learning French. It's a great quick reference when you need to check definite, indefinite, and partitive articles; personal pronouns, identify être verbs, and need help with other particulars of French grammar.","description":"Keep this Cheat Sheet handy as you're learning French. It's a great quick reference when you need to check definite, indefinite, and partitive articles; personal pronouns, identify être verbs, and need help with other particulars of French grammar.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10118,"name":"Laura K. Lawless","slug":"laura-k-lawless","description":" <p><b>Laura K. Lawless</b> earned a BA in International Studies from the Monterey Institute of International Studies. She has also done graduate work in French and Spanish translation, interpretation, linguistics, and literature. Laura is the creator of LawlessFrench.com, an online resource for students, teachers, and lovers of French. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10118"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33695,"title":"French","slug":"french","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208557,"title":"French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208557"}},{"articleId":208489,"title":"Intermediate French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"intermediate-french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208489"}},{"articleId":208461,"title":"French Verbs For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-verbs-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208461"}},{"articleId":208221,"title":"French All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208221"}},{"articleId":208001,"title":"French Grammar For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208001"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":295823,"slug":"french-workbook-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119982036","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119982030/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119982030/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119982030-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119982030/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119982030/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/french-workbook-for-dummies-cover-1119982030-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"French Workbook For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"10118\">Laura K. Lawless</b></b> earned a BA in International Studies from the Monterey Institute of International Studies. She has also done graduate work in French and Spanish translation, interpretation, linguistics, and literature. Laura is the creator of LawlessFrench.com, an online resource for students, teachers, and lovers of French.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":10118,"name":"Laura K. Lawless","slug":"laura-k-lawless","description":" <p><b>Laura K. Lawless</b> earned a BA in International Studies from the Monterey Institute of International Studies. She has also done graduate work in French and Spanish translation, interpretation, linguistics, and literature. Laura is the creator of LawlessFrench.com, an online resource for students, teachers, and lovers of French. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10118"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[{"title":"For the Spring Term Learner","slug":"for-the-spring-term-student","collectionId":296450}],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;french&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119982036&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6502230f2d793\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;french&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119982036&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6502230f2dce7\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":0,"title":"","slug":null,"categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/"}}],"content":[{"title":"Definite, indefinite, and partitive articles","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>You use articles with nouns to indicate something about those nouns. Definite articles refer to something specific, indefinite articles are unspecific, and partitive articles refer to a part of something. See the table below.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td><strong>Gender/Number</strong></td>\n<td><strong>Definite (the)</strong></td>\n<td><strong>Indefinite (a, an, some)</strong></td>\n<td><strong>Partitive (some, any)</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Masculine singular</td>\n<td>le/l&#8217;</td>\n<td>un</td>\n<td>du/de l&#8217;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Feminine singular</td>\n<td>la/l&#8217;</td>\n<td>une</td>\n<td>de la/de l&#8217;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Plural</td>\n<td>les</td>\n<td>des</td>\n<td>des</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Contractions with À and De","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The prepositions <strong>à</strong> (<em>at</em>, <em>to</em>, <em>in</em>) and <strong>de</strong> (<em>of</em>, <em>from</em>) always contract with the definite articles <strong>le</strong> and <strong>les</strong>. See the table below.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td><strong>Article</strong></td>\n<td><strong>à + (le/les)</strong></td>\n<td><strong>de + (le/les)</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>le</td>\n<td>au</td>\n<td>du</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>les</td>\n<td>aux</td>\n<td>des</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>You don’t use a contraction with <strong>à</strong> or <strong>de</strong> + <strong>la</strong> or <strong>l’</strong>: <strong>à la</strong>, <strong>à l’</strong>, <strong>de la</strong>, <strong>de l’</strong>.</p>\n"},{"title":"Adjectives that precede the noun","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Descriptive French adjectives usually follow nouns, except for those that refer to</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Beauty (<strong>joli</strong> [<em>pretty</em>], <strong>moche</strong> [<em>ugly</em>]</li>\n<li>Age (<strong>jeune</strong> [<em>young</em>], <strong>vieux</strong> [<em>old</em>]</li>\n<li>Goodness and badness (<strong>bon</strong> [<em>good</em>], <strong>mauvais</strong> [<em>bad</em>])</li>\n<li>Size (<strong>grand</strong> [<em>big</em>/<em>tall</em>], <strong>petit</strong> [<em>small</em>/<em>short</em>])</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Non-descriptive adjectives (demonstrative, interrogative, numerical, possessive) also precede nouns.</p>\n"},{"title":"Personal pronouns","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Personal pronouns are pronouns (words that replace nouns) that are personal (have different forms for different grammatical persons). In the table below are the most common personal pronouns.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td><strong>Person</strong></td>\n<td><strong>Subject Pronoun</strong></td>\n<td><strong>Direct Object Pronoun</strong></td>\n<td><strong>Indirect Object Pronoun</strong></td>\n<td><strong>Reflexive Pronoun</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>1st person singular</td>\n<td>je/j’</td>\n<td>me/m’</td>\n<td>me/m’</td>\n<td>me/m’</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>2nd person singular</td>\n<td>tu</td>\n<td>te/t’</td>\n<td>te/t’</td>\n<td>te/t’</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>3rd person singular (m)</td>\n<td>il</td>\n<td>le/l’</td>\n<td>lui</td>\n<td>se/s’</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>3rd person singular (f)</td>\n<td>elle</td>\n<td>la/l’</td>\n<td>lui</td>\n<td>se/s’</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>1st person plural</td>\n<td>nous</td>\n<td>nous</td>\n<td>nous</td>\n<td>nous</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>2nd person plural</td>\n<td>vous</td>\n<td>vous</td>\n<td>vous</td>\n<td>vous</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>3rd person plural</td>\n<td>ils, elles</td>\n<td>les</td>\n<td>leur</td>\n<td>se/s’</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Object pronoun word order","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The order of object pronouns depends on whether you use them with the affirmative imperative (commands) or some other construction.</p>\n<p>The following figure shows you word order with the affirmative imperative.</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-295901\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/french-affirmative-imperative.jpg\" alt=\"Table showing affirmative imperative word order in French\" width=\"397\" height=\"346\" /></p>\n<p>The following figure shows the word order with everything else, including the negative imperative.</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-295900\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/french-object-pronoun-order.jpg\" alt=\"Table showing object pronoun word order in French\" width=\"441\" height=\"281\" /></p>\n"},{"title":"Identifying être verbs","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Most French verbs use <strong>avoir</strong> as the auxiliary verb for the <strong>passé composé</strong> and the other compound tenses. Here are the verbs that use <strong>être </strong>instead:</p>\n<p><strong>aller</strong> (<em>to go</em>)</p>\n<p><strong>arriver</strong> (<em>to arrive</em>)</p>\n<p><strong>descendre</strong> (<em>to descend</em>)</p>\n<p><strong>entrer</strong> (<em>to enter</em>)</p>\n<p><strong>monter</strong> (<em>to climb</em>)</p>\n<p><strong>mourir</strong> (<em>to die</em>)</p>\n<p><strong>naître</strong> (<em>to be born</em>)</p>\n<p><strong>partir</strong> (<em>to leave</em>)</p>\n<p><strong>passer</strong> (<em>to pass [by, in front of, behind]</em>)</p>\n<p><strong>rentrer</strong> (<em>to go home</em>)</p>\n<p><strong>rester</strong> (<em>to stay</em>)</p>\n<p><strong>retourner</strong> (<em>to return</em>)</p>\n<p><strong>sortir</strong> (<em>to go out</em>)</p>\n<p><strong>tomber</strong> (<em>to fall</em>)</p>\n<p><strong>venir</strong> (<em>to come</em>)</p>\n<p>In addition, pronominal verbs use <strong>être</strong>:<strong> Je me suis levé </strong>(<em>I got up.</em>)</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-11-29T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":295896},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T22:47:49+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-08-07T13:48:24+00:00","timestamp":"2024-08-07T15:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Learning Languages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33689"},"slug":"learning-languages","categoryId":33689},{"name":"French","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"},"slug":"french","categoryId":33695}],"title":"Enjoying French Meals","strippedTitle":"enjoying french meals","slug":"enjoying-french-meals","canonicalUrl":"","搜所搜素座舱seo":{"metaDescription":"What better way to enjoy what you are going to eat than to start with an empty stomach. Then you can say, \"J'ai faim\" (zheh fan) (I'm hungry) or \"J'ai soif\" (zh","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"What better way to enjoy what you are going to eat than to start with an empty stomach. Then you can say, <b>\"J'ai faim\"</b> <i>(zheh fan)</i> (I'm hungry) or <b>\"J'ai soif\"</b> <i>(zheh swaf)</i> (I'm thirsty), and the glorious world of French gastronomy is yours!\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">French food is probably the most famous and the most praised in the world. And you don't have to go to Paris to enjoy it. In the United States, French restaurants and specialty food shops are often very expensive. But just across the border, you can find total satisfaction at reasonable prices in Montreal.</p>\r\nIn the United States, people eat breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Wouldn't it be simple if only three words designated <b>les repas</b> <i>(lay ruh-pah)</i> (the meals) in all French-speaking countries? Well, it simply isn't so. Québec has kept some of the seventeenth-century French of its first settlers and uses the words that were used then (as do the people in some parts of the French countryside):\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The word for \"breakfast\" is:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>le déjeuner</b> <i>(luh day-zhuh-nay)</i> in Québec</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le petit déjeuner</b> <i>(luh puh-tee day-zhuh-nay)</i> in France\r\n<p class=\"Tip\"><b>Le déjeuner</b> (in Québec) is probably a remnant from the days when farm workers ate a big hearty meal in early morning, another big meal at midday, and only hot soup with bread at the end of the day. Then breakfast was more a <b>déjeuner</b> (meal) than a <b>petit déjeuner</b> (little meal). Also, the Quebecois are North Americans and thus more used to a big breakfast than the French are. So, if you're meeting someone for <b>le déjeuner</b> in Montreal, don't wait until lunch time! Unless your hosts invited your for <b>le brunch</b> — no explanation necessary, right? — they won't be expecting you.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>The word for \"lunch\" is:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>le dîner</b> <i>(luh dee-nay)</i> in Québec</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le déjeuner</b> <i>(luh day-zhuh-nay)</i> in France</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>The word for \"dinner\" is:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>le souper</b> <i>(luh soo-pay)</i> in Québec</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le dîner</b> <i>(luh dee-nay)</i> in France</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>These nouns are also verbs; to have lunch or dinner is <b>déjeuner, dîner, or souper.</b></li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAfter coming home from school, children enjoy <b>le goûter</b> <i>(luh goo-tay)</i> (mid-afternoon snack), which usually consists of bread and butter, jam, or chocolate. If you suddenly find yourself hungry between meals, you can always have <b>un casse-croûte</b> <i>(kahs-kroot)</i> (a snack, literally: break the crust) like a crêpe at a stand in Paris, a hot dog sold by a street vendor in Montreal, or anything in between. Even out in the middle of the country, you may be lucky enough to find a café where you can get <b>une omelette</b> <i>(ew-nom-leht)</i> (an omelet) or <b>un sandwich</b> <i>(aN sahn-dweesh)</i> (a sandwich).\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >A note about breakfast</h2>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">As we mention earlier, a Canadian breakfast looks much like its American or British counterpart. The French breakfast, on the other hand, is more like what hotels call a continental breakfast. Many French don't even eat the famous <b>croissant</b> <i>(krwa-sahN)</i> with their morning coffee; they're often satisfied with just a quick espresso before boarding the train or the subway. Nowadays, like North American children, many French children have cereal and milk, <b>les céréales et le lait</b> <i>(lay say-ray-ah-lay luh lay)</i> for breakfast.</p>\r\nStill, the traditional French breakfast is usually made up of the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>le café</b> <i>(luh kah-fay)</i> (coffee)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le café au lait</b> <i>(luh kah-fay o leh)</i> (coffee with hot milk)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le café crème</b> <i>(luh kah-fay crehm</i>) (coffee with a little milk)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le thé nature</b> <i>(luh tay nah-tewr)</i> (plain tea)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le thé au lait</b><i> (luh tay o leh) </i>(tea with milk)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le thé au citron/le thé citron</b> <i>(luh tay o see-trohn/luh tay see-trohn)</i> (tea with lemon)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le pain</b> <i>(luh pahN)</i> (bread)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le pain grillé</b> <i>(luh pahN gree-yay)</i> (toast)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>les tartines</b><i> (lay tahr-teen)</i> (slices of bread with some kind of spread)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le beurre</b> <i>(luh buhr) </i>(butter)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>la margarine</b> <i>(lah mahr-zhah-reen)</i> (margarine), not as popular as butter but used nevertheless</li>\r\n \t<li><b>la confiture</b> <i>(lah kohn-fee-tewr)</i> (jam)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le croissant</b><i> (luh krwa-sahN)</i> (croissant — crescent-shaped)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le pain au chocolat</b> <i>(luh pan o sho-ko-lah)</i> (same dough as a croissant, but a different shape and with a chocolate bar inside)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le chausson aux pommes</b> <i>(luh sho-sohN o pohm)</i> (applesauce-filled danish)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le pain aux raisins</b> <i>(luh pahN o ray-zan)</i> (a sort of raisin bread)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nYou can find all of these mouth-watering goodies in any <b>pâtisserie</b> <i>(pah-tees-ree)</i> (confectioner's shop) or <b>boulangerie</b> <i>(boo-lahn-zhree)</i> (bakery) throughout France. If you aren't sure what something is, you can always simply point to it in the window and be delightfully surprised at whatever delicious confection you discover!\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >A note about lunch</h2>\r\nUntil the mid-1960s, lunch was the big meal of the day in France. Fathers came home from work and children came home from school to sit to a four- or five-course meal prepared by the mother. After a two-hour break, everybody went back to their activities. Children still have a two-hour break from lunch, and many of them still go home. But with many women working outside the house, most active people spend much less time on their lunch break and don't have time to come home. They also eat more lightly at midday.","description":"What better way to enjoy what you are going to eat than to start with an empty stomach. Then you can say, <b>\"J'ai faim\"</b> <i>(zheh fan)</i> (I'm hungry) or <b>\"J'ai soif\"</b> <i>(zheh swaf)</i> (I'm thirsty), and the glorious world of French gastronomy is yours!\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">French food is probably the most famous and the most praised in the world. And you don't have to go to Paris to enjoy it. In the United States, French restaurants and specialty food shops are often very expensive. But just across the border, you can find total satisfaction at reasonable prices in Montreal.</p>\r\nIn the United States, people eat breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Wouldn't it be simple if only three words designated <b>les repas</b> <i>(lay ruh-pah)</i> (the meals) in all French-speaking countries? Well, it simply isn't so. Québec has kept some of the seventeenth-century French of its first settlers and uses the words that were used then (as do the people in some parts of the French countryside):\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The word for \"breakfast\" is:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>le déjeuner</b> <i>(luh day-zhuh-nay)</i> in Québec</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le petit déjeuner</b> <i>(luh puh-tee day-zhuh-nay)</i> in France\r\n<p class=\"Tip\"><b>Le déjeuner</b> (in Québec) is probably a remnant from the days when farm workers ate a big hearty meal in early morning, another big meal at midday, and only hot soup with bread at the end of the day. Then breakfast was more a <b>déjeuner</b> (meal) than a <b>petit déjeuner</b> (little meal). Also, the Quebecois are North Americans and thus more used to a big breakfast than the French are. So, if you're meeting someone for <b>le déjeuner</b> in Montreal, don't wait until lunch time! Unless your hosts invited your for <b>le brunch</b> — no explanation necessary, right? — they won't be expecting you.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>The word for \"lunch\" is:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>le dîner</b> <i>(luh dee-nay)</i> in Québec</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le déjeuner</b> <i>(luh day-zhuh-nay)</i> in France</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>The word for \"dinner\" is:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>le souper</b> <i>(luh soo-pay)</i> in Québec</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le dîner</b> <i>(luh dee-nay)</i> in France</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>These nouns are also verbs; to have lunch or dinner is <b>déjeuner, dîner, or souper.</b></li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAfter coming home from school, children enjoy <b>le goûter</b> <i>(luh goo-tay)</i> (mid-afternoon snack), which usually consists of bread and butter, jam, or chocolate. If you suddenly find yourself hungry between meals, you can always have <b>un casse-croûte</b> <i>(kahs-kroot)</i> (a snack, literally: break the crust) like a crêpe at a stand in Paris, a hot dog sold by a street vendor in Montreal, or anything in between. Even out in the middle of the country, you may be lucky enough to find a café where you can get <b>une omelette</b> <i>(ew-nom-leht)</i> (an omelet) or <b>un sandwich</b> <i>(aN sahn-dweesh)</i> (a sandwich).\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >A note about breakfast</h2>\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">As we mention earlier, a Canadian breakfast looks much like its American or British counterpart. The French breakfast, on the other hand, is more like what hotels call a continental breakfast. Many French don't even eat the famous <b>croissant</b> <i>(krwa-sahN)</i> with their morning coffee; they're often satisfied with just a quick espresso before boarding the train or the subway. Nowadays, like North American children, many French children have cereal and milk, <b>les céréales et le lait</b> <i>(lay say-ray-ah-lay luh lay)</i> for breakfast.</p>\r\nStill, the traditional French breakfast is usually made up of the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><b>le café</b> <i>(luh kah-fay)</i> (coffee)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le café au lait</b> <i>(luh kah-fay o leh)</i> (coffee with hot milk)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le café crème</b> <i>(luh kah-fay crehm</i>) (coffee with a little milk)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le thé nature</b> <i>(luh tay nah-tewr)</i> (plain tea)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le thé au lait</b><i> (luh tay o leh) </i>(tea with milk)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le thé au citron/le thé citron</b> <i>(luh tay o see-trohn/luh tay see-trohn)</i> (tea with lemon)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le pain</b> <i>(luh pahN)</i> (bread)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le pain grillé</b> <i>(luh pahN gree-yay)</i> (toast)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>les tartines</b><i> (lay tahr-teen)</i> (slices of bread with some kind of spread)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le beurre</b> <i>(luh buhr) </i>(butter)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>la margarine</b> <i>(lah mahr-zhah-reen)</i> (margarine), not as popular as butter but used nevertheless</li>\r\n \t<li><b>la confiture</b> <i>(lah kohn-fee-tewr)</i> (jam)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le croissant</b><i> (luh krwa-sahN)</i> (croissant — crescent-shaped)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le pain au chocolat</b> <i>(luh pan o sho-ko-lah)</i> (same dough as a croissant, but a different shape and with a chocolate bar inside)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le chausson aux pommes</b> <i>(luh sho-sohN o pohm)</i> (applesauce-filled danish)</li>\r\n \t<li><b>le pain aux raisins</b> <i>(luh pahN o ray-zan)</i> (a sort of raisin bread)</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nYou can find all of these mouth-watering goodies in any <b>pâtisserie</b> <i>(pah-tees-ree)</i> (confectioner's shop) or <b>boulangerie</b> <i>(boo-lahn-zhree)</i> (bakery) throughout France. If you aren't sure what something is, you can always simply point to it in the window and be delightfully surprised at whatever delicious confection you discover!\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >A note about lunch</h2>\r\nUntil the mid-1960s, lunch was the big meal of the day in France. Fathers came home from work and children came home from school to sit to a four- or five-course meal prepared by the mother. After a two-hour break, everybody went back to their activities. Children still have a two-hour break from lunch, and many of them still go home. But with many women working outside the house, most active people spend much less time on their lunch break and don't have time to come home. They also eat more lightly at midday.","blurb":"","authors":[],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33695,"title":"French","slug":"french","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"A note about breakfast","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"A note about lunch","target":"#tab2"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":295896,"title":"French Workbook For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-workbook-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/295896"}},{"articleId":208557,"title":"French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208557"}},{"articleId":208489,"title":"Intermediate French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"intermediate-french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208489"}},{"articleId":208461,"title":"French Verbs For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-verbs-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208461"}},{"articleId":208221,"title":"French All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208221"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;french&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64d1072f5dc12\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;french&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64d1072f5e2af\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-08-07T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":200181},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T15:00:50+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-09-29T21:07:04+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-30T00:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Learning Languages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33689"},"slug":"learning-languages","categoryId":33689},{"name":"French","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"},"slug":"french","categoryId":33695}],"title":"French Indefinite Articles","strippedTitle":"french indefinite articles","slug":"french-indefinite-articles","canonicalUrl":"","搜所搜素座舱seo":{"metaDescription":"The French indefinite article is the equivalent to a/an and some (but English often skips it). Do you ask about one thing, describe a couple of things that happ","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The French indefinite article is the equivalent to <i>a/an</i><i> </i>and <i>some</i> (but English often skips it). Do you ask about <i>one</i> thing, describe <i>a couple of </i>things that happened, and make plans for <i>an</i> outing that hasn’t yet been defined? If so, you’re an indefinite article kind of person, like the French! And as such, you should treat the <b>article indéfini </b>as the default article in <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/languages/french/french-grammar-for-dummies-cheat-sheet/\">French grammar</a>.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >French Indefinite Articles</h2>\r\n<table>\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<th>French Article</th>\r\n<th>Usage in French</th>\r\n<th>English Equivalent</th>\r\n<th>Example</th>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>un</td>\r\n<td>Before masculine singular nouns</td>\r\n<td>a/an</td>\r\n<td><b>un chat</b> (<i>a cat</i>)</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>une</td>\r\n<td>Before feminine singular nouns</td>\r\n<td>a/an</td>\r\n<td><b>une maison</b> <b>\r\n</b>(<i>a house</i>)</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>des</td>\r\n<td>Before masculine or feminine plural nouns</td>\r\n<td>some</td>\r\n<td><b>des enfants</b> (<i>some children</i>)</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><b>de,</b> or <b>d’</b> before nouns beginning with a\r\nvowel or a mute <b>-h</b></td>\r\n<td>Instead of any indefinite article, after a negative verb</td>\r\n<td>no or not any</td>\r\n<td><b>pas d’ordinateur</b> <b>\r\n</b>(<i>no computer</i>)</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n</tbody>\r\n</table>\r\nUse the indefinite article when you talk about one or several individual things that you can count, as opposed to an entire category of things.\r\n<blockquote><b>Il y a un livre sur la table.</b> (<i>There is a book on the table.</i>)</blockquote>\r\n<blockquote><b>Tu as mangé une banane. </b>(<i>You ate a/one banana.</i>)</blockquote>\r\n<blockquote><b>Il a vu des lions au zoo. </b>(<i>He saw (some) lions at the zoo.</i>)</blockquote>\r\nYou also can use the indefinite articles <b>un</b> and <b>une</b> before an expression of quantity, like <b>une tranche de </b>(<i>a slice of</i>), <b>un morceau de </b>(<i>a piece of</i>), and <b>un peu de</b> (<i>a little bit of</i>).\r\n\r\nIn a sentence with a negative verb, <b>un, une, </b>and<b> </b><b>des</b><b> </b>are replaced by <b>de</b>, even if the noun it introduces is plural. Here are some examples.\r\n<blockquote><b>Il n’y a pas de souris dans notre garage.</b> (<i>There is not a mouse in our garage.</i>)</blockquote>\r\n<blockquote><b>Elle ne veut pas d’enfants.</b> (<i>She doesn’t want any children.</i>)</blockquote>\r\n<p class=\"Warning\">This rule has one exception. Don’t use <b>de</b> when the negative verb is <b>être </b>(<i>to be</i>). Just use the indefinite article as if the sentence was affirmative. Here are some examples:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote><b>Cet animal n’est pas un chien. C’est un renard. </b>(<i>This animal is not a dog. It’s a fox.</i>)</blockquote>\r\n<blockquote><b>—</b><b> </b><b>C’est une voiture rouge, n’est-ce pas? —</b><b> </b><b>Non ce n’est pas une voiture rou</b><b>ge! C’est </b><b>une voiture noire. </b>(<i>—</i><i> </i><i>It’s a red car, right? —</i><i> </i><i>No, it’s not a red car! It’s a black car.</i>)</blockquote>\r\nChoose between the definite article (<b>le, la, l’, les</b>)<b> </b>and the indefinite article (<b>un, une, des,</b> and <b>de</b>) to complete the sentences. Check a French-English dictionary if you need help with the vocabulary.","description":"The French indefinite article is the equivalent to <i>a/an</i><i> </i>and <i>some</i> (but English often skips it). Do you ask about <i>one</i> thing, describe <i>a couple of </i>things that happened, and make plans for <i>an</i> outing that hasn’t yet been defined? If so, you’re an indefinite article kind of person, like the French! And as such, you should treat the <b>article indéfini </b>as the default article in <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/languages/french/french-grammar-for-dummies-cheat-sheet/\">French grammar</a>.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >French Indefinite Articles</h2>\r\n<table>\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<th>French Article</th>\r\n<th>Usage in French</th>\r\n<th>English Equivalent</th>\r\n<th>Example</th>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>un</td>\r\n<td>Before masculine singular nouns</td>\r\n<td>a/an</td>\r\n<td><b>un chat</b> (<i>a cat</i>)</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>une</td>\r\n<td>Before feminine singular nouns</td>\r\n<td>a/an</td>\r\n<td><b>une maison</b> <b>\r\n</b>(<i>a house</i>)</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>des</td>\r\n<td>Before masculine or feminine plural nouns</td>\r\n<td>some</td>\r\n<td><b>des enfants</b> (<i>some children</i>)</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><b>de,</b> or <b>d’</b> before nouns beginning with a\r\nvowel or a mute <b>-h</b></td>\r\n<td>Instead of any indefinite article, after a negative verb</td>\r\n<td>no or not any</td>\r\n<td><b>pas d’ordinateur</b> <b>\r\n</b>(<i>no computer</i>)</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n</tbody>\r\n</table>\r\nUse the indefinite article when you talk about one or several individual things that you can count, as opposed to an entire category of things.\r\n<blockquote><b>Il y a un livre sur la table.</b> (<i>There is a book on the table.</i>)</blockquote>\r\n<blockquote><b>Tu as mangé une banane. </b>(<i>You ate a/one banana.</i>)</blockquote>\r\n<blockquote><b>Il a vu des lions au zoo. </b>(<i>He saw (some) lions at the zoo.</i>)</blockquote>\r\nYou also can use the indefinite articles <b>un</b> and <b>une</b> before an expression of quantity, like <b>une tranche de </b>(<i>a slice of</i>), <b>un morceau de </b>(<i>a piece of</i>), and <b>un peu de</b> (<i>a little bit of</i>).\r\n\r\nIn a sentence with a negative verb, <b>un, une, </b>and<b> </b><b>des</b><b> </b>are replaced by <b>de</b>, even if the noun it introduces is plural. Here are some examples.\r\n<blockquote><b>Il n’y a pas de souris dans notre garage.</b> (<i>There is not a mouse in our garage.</i>)</blockquote>\r\n<blockquote><b>Elle ne veut pas d’enfants.</b> (<i>She doesn’t want any children.</i>)</blockquote>\r\n<p class=\"Warning\">This rule has one exception. Don’t use <b>de</b> when the negative verb is <b>être </b>(<i>to be</i>). Just use the indefinite article as if the sentence was affirmative. Here are some examples:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote><b>Cet animal n’est pas un chien. C’est un renard. </b>(<i>This animal is not a dog. It’s a fox.</i>)</blockquote>\r\n<blockquote><b>—</b><b> </b><b>C’est une voiture rouge, n’est-ce pas? —</b><b> </b><b>Non ce n’est pas une voiture rou</b><b>ge! C’est </b><b>une voiture noire. </b>(<i>—</i><i> </i><i>It’s a red car, right? —</i><i> </i><i>No, it’s not a red car! It’s a black car.</i>)</blockquote>\r\nChoose between the definite article (<b>le, la, l’, les</b>)<b> </b>and the indefinite article (<b>un, une, des,</b> and <b>de</b>) to complete the sentences. Check a French-English dictionary if you need help with the vocabulary.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9721,"name":"Veronique Mazet","slug":"veronique-mazet","description":" <p><b>V&#233;ronique Mazet</b> has a doctorate in French from the University of Texas at Austin and is the author of two successful grammar books. She currently teaches French at Austin Community College in Austin, Texas.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9721"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33695,"title":"French","slug":"french","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"French Indefinite Articles","target":"#tab1"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":208001,"title":"French Grammar For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208001"}},{"articleId":168910,"title":"Checking Out the Conditional in French","slug":"checking-out-the-conditional-in-french","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168910"}},{"articleId":168909,"title":"Putting Prepositions in French Sentences","slug":"putting-prepositions-in-french-sentences","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168909"}},{"articleId":168911,"title":"Building Negative Sentences in French","slug":"building-negative-sentences-in-french","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168911"}},{"articleId":168904,"title":"Ten Common French Grammar Mistakes (and How to Avoid Them)","slug":"ten-common-french-grammar-mistakes-and-how-to-avoid-them","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168904"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208557,"title":"French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208557"}},{"articleId":208489,"title":"Intermediate French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"intermediate-french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208489"}},{"articleId":208461,"title":"French Verbs For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-verbs-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208461"}},{"articleId":208221,"title":"French All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208221"}},{"articleId":208001,"title":"French Grammar For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208001"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282216,"slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies","isbn":"9781118502518","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1118502515-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/french-grammar-for-dummies-cover-9781118502518-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"French Grammar For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9721\">Véronique Mazet</b> has a doctorate in French from the University of Texas at Austin and is the author of two successful grammar books. She currently teaches French at Austin Community College in Austin, Texas.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9721,"name":"Veronique Mazet","slug":"veronique-mazet","description":" <p><b>V&#233;ronique Mazet</b> has a doctorate in French from the University of Texas at Austin and is the author of two successful grammar books. 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Lawless","slug":"laura-k-lawless","description":" <p><b>Laura K. Lawless</b> is the author of three language websites (French, Spanish, and English) and several successful language titles including <i>Intermediate French For Dummies.</i></p><p><b>Zoe Erotopoulos, PhD</b> has taught French for more than 30 years. She is the author of <i>French Verbs For Dummies.</i></p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10118"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33695,"title":"French","slug":"french","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":200068,"title":"French Translation: Three Things to Avoid","slug":"french-translation-three-things-to-avoid","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200068"}},{"articleId":199098,"title":"Understanding French Articles and How They Indicate Gender and Number","slug":"understanding-french-articles-and-how-they-indicate-gender-and-number","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/199098"}},{"articleId":198776,"title":"Writing in French with Masculine and Feminine Nouns","slug":"writing-in-french-with-masculine-and-feminine-nouns","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/198776"}},{"articleId":185918,"title":"Categorizing French Articles","slug":"categorizing-french-articles","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/185918"}},{"articleId":185896,"title":"Object Pronoun Word Order in French","slug":"object-pronoun-word-order-in-french","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/185896"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208557,"title":"French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208557"}},{"articleId":208461,"title":"French Verbs For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-verbs-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208461"}},{"articleId":208221,"title":"French All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208221"}},{"articleId":208001,"title":"French Grammar For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208001"}},{"articleId":201525,"title":"Shopping in French Stores","slug":"shopping-in-french-stores","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/201525"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282301,"slug":"intermediate-french-for-dummies","isbn":"9780470187685","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/0470187689/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/0470187689/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/0470187689-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0470187689/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/0470187689/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/intermediate-french-for-dummies-cover-9780470187685-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Intermediate French For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<b data-author-id=\"10118\">Laura K. Lawless</b> is a French fanatic. From the day she learned her first French words (the numbers 1–10 at age 10), she has been obsessed with the language of love. Her first trip to France, at 15, further convinced her that French would always be an essential part of her life. Laura has a BA in International Studies from the Monterey Institute of International Studies, and she has done graduate work in French and Spanish translation, interpretation, linguistics, and literature. She also studied French at <i>Institut de formation internationale</i> in Mont-St-Aignan, France, and at the <i>Alliance française</i> in Toulouse, France.<br> In 1999, after a year of teaching French and Spanish to adults, Laura became the French Language Guide at About.com (//french.about.com), where she continues to create lessons, quizzes, listening exercises, and games for French students and teachers around the world. Her fascination with all things French guarantees that she will never run out of ideas for her French site or books (this is her fourth). Laura has lived in France, Morocco, and Costa Rica, and after scheming and dreaming for more than half her life, she and her husband will be moving to France in 2008.","authors":[{"authorId":10118,"name":"Laura K. Lawless","slug":"laura-k-lawless","description":" <p><b>Laura K. Lawless</b> is the author of three language websites (French, Spanish, and English) and several successful language titles including <i>Intermediate French For Dummies.</i></p><p><b>Zoe Erotopoulos, PhD</b> has taught French for more than 30 years. She is the author of <i>French Verbs For Dummies.</i></p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10118"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;french&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470187685&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b3a6b033\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;french&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9780470187685&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b3a6baa3\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":185918,"title":"Categorizing French Articles","slug":"categorizing-french-articles","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/185918"}},{"articleId":185886,"title":"French Contractions with À and De","slug":"french-contractions-with-and-de","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/185886"}},{"articleId":185885,"title":"French Personal Pronouns","slug":"french-personal-pronouns","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/185885"}},{"articleId":185896,"title":"Object Pronoun Word Order in French","slug":"object-pronoun-word-order-in-french","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/185896"}},{"articleId":185884,"title":"Recognizing Être Verbs in French","slug":"recognizing-tre-verbs-in-french","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/185884"}}],"content":[{"title":"Categorizing French articles","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>In French, there are three kinds of articles (small words you can only use with nouns): definite, indefinite, and partitive. The purpose of an article is to present a noun and indicate its gender and number.</p>\n<p>This chart represents articles and how to use them in French writing and language:</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Gender/Number</th>\n<th>Definite (the)</th>\n<th>Indefinite (a, an, some)</th>\n<th>Partitive (some, any)</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Masculine singular</td>\n<td>le</td>\n<td>un</td>\n<td>du</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>feminine singular</td>\n<td>la</td>\n<td>une</td>\n<td>de la</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>plural</td>\n<td>les</td>\n<td>des</td>\n<td>des</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"French contractions with à and de","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The most common French prepositions are <em>à</em> (to, at, in)<b> </b>and <em>de</em> (of, from, about). When these two prepositions are followed by the definite articles <em>le</em> and <em>les</em><b>, </b>a contraction needs to be formed. (Note: There’s no contraction with à or de plus <em>la</em> or <em>l’</em>: à la, à l’, de la, de l’.)</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Article</th>\n<th>à + (le/les)</th>\n<th>de + (le/les)</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Le</td>\n<td>au</td>\n<td>du</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Les</td>\n<td>aux</td>\n<td>des</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>À and de also contract with the different forms of <em>lequel</em> (which one):</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Form of Lequel</th>\n<th>à + (lequel)</th>\n<th>de + (lequel)</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Lequel</td>\n<td>auquel</td>\n<td>duquel</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Lesquels</td>\n<td>auxquels</td>\n<td>desquels</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Lesquelles</td>\n<td>auxquelles</td>\n<td>desquelles</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>There’s no contraction with laquelle: à laquelle, de laquelle.</p>\n"},{"title":"French personal pronouns","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Simply put, pronouns replace nouns. Pronouns refer to people, places, things, and ideas, without having to use the same nouns over and over. The French language uses five types of personal pronouns. These French pronouns are the equivalents to I/me, you, or he/him/it:</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Person</th>\n<th>Subject Pronoun</th>\n<th>Direct Object Pronoun</th>\n<th>Indirect Object Pronoun</th>\n<th>Reflexive Pronoun</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>1st person singular</td>\n<td>je</td>\n<td>me</td>\n<td>me</td>\n<td>me</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>2nd person singular</td>\n<td>tu</td>\n<td>te</td>\n<td>te</td>\n<td>te</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>3rd person singular (masc.)</td>\n<td>il</td>\n<td>le</td>\n<td>lui</td>\n<td>se</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>3rd person singular (fem.)</td>\n<td>ell</td>\n<td>la</td>\n<td>lui</td>\n<td>se</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>1st person plural</td>\n<td>nous</td>\n<td>nous</td>\n<td>nous</td>\n<td>nous</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>2nd person plural</td>\n<td>vous</td>\n<td>vous</td>\n<td>vous</td>\n<td>vous</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>3rd person plural</td>\n<td>ils, elles</td>\n<td>les</td>\n<td>leur</td>\n<td>se</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Object pronoun word order in French","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>To effectively use French object pronouns, you need to understand what they mean and where they go in the sentence. In the affirmative imperative, direct-object pronouns (like reflexive pronouns) follow the verb and are attached to it with hyphens; in addition, me changes to moi and te changes to toi. This chart shows the object pronoun word order with the affirmative imperative (command):</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Direct Object (3rd Person)</th>\n<th>Direct Object (1st or 2nd Person) or Reflexive Pronoun</th>\n<th>Y (there — refers to place)</th>\n<th>En (some, any, of them)</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Le</td>\n<td>moi</td>\n<td>y</td>\n<td>en</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>La</td>\n<td>toi</td>\n<td></td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Les</td>\n<td>lui</td>\n<td></td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td></td>\n<td>nous</td>\n<td></td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td></td>\n<td>vous</td>\n<td></td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td></td>\n<td>leur</td>\n<td></td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>Here’s the word order with everything else, including the negative imperative:</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Reflexive Pronoun, Direct Object (1st or 2nd Person), or<br />\nIndirect Object (1st or 2nd Person)</th>\n<th>Direct Object (3rd Person)</th>\n<th>Indirect Object (3rd Person)</th>\n<th>Y (there — refers to place)</th>\n<th>En (some, any, of them)</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>me</td>\n<td>le</td>\n<td>lui</td>\n<td>y</td>\n<td>en</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>te</td>\n<td>la</td>\n<td>leur</td>\n<td></td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>se</td>\n<td>les</td>\n<td></td>\n<td></td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>nous</td>\n<td></td>\n<td></td>\n<td></td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>vous</td>\n<td></td>\n<td></td>\n<td></td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Recognizing être verbs in French","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>In French, the <em>passé compose</em> is a compound verb tense, meaning it has two parts: an auxiliary verb and a past participle. French has two auxiliary verbs, <em>avoir</em> or être, and most main verbs use avoir.</p>\n<p>Memorize the following short list of verbs, which refer to coming and going (both literally and figuratively) that use être:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">aller (to go)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">arriver (to arrive)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">descendre (to descend )</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">entrer (to enter )</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">monter (to climb)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">mourir (to die)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">naître (to be born)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">partir (to leave)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">passer (to pass [by, in front of, behind] )</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">rester (to stay )</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">retourner (to return)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">sortir (to go out )</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">tomber (to fall )</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">venir (to come)</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>In addition, pronominal verbs use être: je me suis levé (I got up.)</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208489},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:51:24+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-02-22T22:37:57+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:11+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Learning Languages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33689"},"slug":"learning-languages","categoryId":33689},{"name":"French","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"},"slug":"french","categoryId":33695}],"title":"French All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"french all-in-one for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"french-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜所搜素座舱seo":{"metaDescription":"Learn some of the French language fundamentals, including verb tenses, articles and adjectives, common idiomatic expressions, and more.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Like any new language, learning French can be a challenge. You have to interpret unfamiliar sounds, decipher idioms, conjugate verbs in multiple tenses, dot your <i>i</i>s, cross your <i>t</i>s, and link your <i>œ</i>s. Nouns have both number and gender, and adjectives and articles have to agree with them.\r\n\r\nHere are a few French fundamentals to give your speaking, listening, reading, and writing a boost.","description":"Like any new language, learning French can be a challenge. You have to interpret unfamiliar sounds, decipher idioms, conjugate verbs in multiple tenses, dot your <i>i</i>s, cross your <i>t</i>s, and link your <i>œ</i>s. Nouns have both number and gender, and adjectives and articles have to agree with them.\r\n\r\nHere are a few French fundamentals to give your speaking, listening, reading, and writing a boost.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":8947,"name":"The Experts at Dummies","slug":"the-experts-at-dummies","description":"The Experts at Dummies are smart, friendly people who make learning easy by taking a not-so-serious approach to serious stuff.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/8947"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33695,"title":"French","slug":"french","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":173582,"title":"Common Idiomatic Avoir Expressions","slug":"common-idiomatic-avoir-expressions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/173582"}},{"articleId":173583,"title":"Spelling and Letter Combinations: Understanding Spoken French","slug":"spelling-and-letter-combinations-understanding-spoken-french","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/173583"}},{"articleId":173584,"title":"Choosing French Verb Tenses","slug":"choosing-french-verb-tenses","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/173584"}},{"articleId":173581,"title":"Common Idiomatic Faire Expressions","slug":"common-idiomatic-faire-expressions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/173581"}},{"articleId":173573,"title":"Articles and Adjectives: Short Words before French Nouns","slug":"articles-and-adjectives-short-words-before-french-nouns","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/173573"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208557,"title":"French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208557"}},{"articleId":208489,"title":"Intermediate French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"intermediate-french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208489"}},{"articleId":208461,"title":"French Verbs For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-verbs-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208461"}},{"articleId":208001,"title":"French Grammar For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208001"}},{"articleId":201525,"title":"Shopping in French Stores","slug":"shopping-in-french-stores","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/201525"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282214,"slug":"french-all-in-one-for-dummies-with-cd","isbn":"9781118228159","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1118228154/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1118228154/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1118228154-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1118228154/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1118228154/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/french-all-in-one-for-dummies-with-cd-cover-9781118228159-202x255.jpg","width":202,"height":255},"title":"French All-in-One For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"","authors":[{"authorId":34784,"name":"","slug":"","description":" <p><b> Joseph A. Allen, PhD</b> is a professor of industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology at the University of Utah. His articles have appeared in <i>Human Relations, Journal of Business Psychology</i>, and more.</p> <p><b>Karin M. Reed</b> is CEO of Speaker Dynamics, a corporate communications training firm. She is an Emmy award-winning broadcast journalist. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/34784"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;french&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118228159&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b1f7170c\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;french&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118228159&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b1f7218b\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":173584,"title":"Choosing French Verb Tenses","slug":"choosing-french-verb-tenses","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/173584"}},{"articleId":173583,"title":"Spelling and Letter Combinations: Understanding Spoken French","slug":"spelling-and-letter-combinations-understanding-spoken-french","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/173583"}},{"articleId":173573,"title":"Articles and Adjectives: Short Words before French Nouns","slug":"articles-and-adjectives-short-words-before-french-nouns","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/173573"}},{"articleId":173582,"title":"Common Idiomatic Avoir Expressions","slug":"common-idiomatic-avoir-expressions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/173582"}},{"articleId":173581,"title":"Common Idiomatic Faire Expressions","slug":"common-idiomatic-faire-expressions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/173581"}}],"content":[{"title":"Choosing French verb tenses","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>To use the correct form of a French verb, you have to use the right tense. The indicative mood, which deals with objectivity — things really happening — includes many time aspects called <i>tenses.</i> A tense defines the time frame in which the action of the verb takes place: past, present, or future.</p>\n<p>The following French verb tenses chart explains when to use each tense. It shows how compound tenses build off simpler ones and <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/languages/french/how-to-conjugate-regular-french-verbs/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">conjugate verbs</a> for each tense: <b>chanter </b>(<i>to sing</i>) and <b>se laver</b> (<i>to wash oneself</i>).</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Time Frame</th>\n<th>French Tense</th>\n<th>How to Build from Other Tenses</th>\n<th>Examples</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>What happens, is happening, or does happen</td>\n<td>Present indicative/<b>présent de<br />\nl’indicatif</b></td>\n<td></td>\n<td><b>je chante<br />\nje me lave</b></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>What just happened</td>\n<td>Near past/<b>passé récent</b></td>\n<td>Present <b>venir</b> + <b>de</b> + infinitive</td>\n<td><b>je viens de chanter<br />\nje viens de me laver</b></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>What is going to happen</td>\n<td>Near future/<b>futur proche</b></td>\n<td>Present <b>aller</b> + infinitive</td>\n<td><b>je vais chanter<br />\nje vais me laver</b></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>What [has] happened precisely and completely</td>\n<td><b>Passé composé</b></td>\n<td>Present <b>avoir/</b><b>ê</b><b>tre</b> + past<br />\nparticiple</td>\n<td><b>j’ai chanté<br />\nje me suis lavé(e)</b></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>What was happening or used to happen or just was a certain<br />\nway</td>\n<td>Imperfect/<b>Imparfait</b></td>\n<td></td>\n<td><b>je chantais<br />\nje me lavais</b></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>What had happened</td>\n<td>Pluperfect/<b>plus-que-parfait</b></td>\n<td><b>Imparfait</b> <b>avoir/</b><b>ê</b><b>tre</b> + past<br />\nparticiple</td>\n<td><b>j’avais chanté<br />\nje m’étais lavé(e)</b></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>What will happen</td>\n<td>Simple future/<b>futur simple</b></td>\n<td></td>\n<td><b>je chanterai<br />\nje me laverai</b></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>What will have happened</td>\n<td>Future perfect/<b>futur antérieur</b></td>\n<td>Simple future <b>avoir/</b><b>ê</b><b>tre</b> + past<br />\nparticiple</td>\n<td><b>j’aurai chanté<br />\nje me serai lavé(e)</b></td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Spelling and letter combinations: Understanding spoken French","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Interpreting French speech can be hard for English speakers — and not only because the sounds are unfamiliar. French has a lot of letter combinations that produce the same sounds.<b><i> </i></b>When you hear <i>nah-syohN, </i>realizing that the word is likely spelled <b>nation</b> rather than <b>nassion</b> allows you to quickly understand the meaning of the word.</p>\n<p>Remember these patterns as you try to figure out which words you’re hearing, and try another spelling if what you’re hearing doesn’t make sense:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>é, ée, és, ées:</b> When you add a mute <b>e</b>, an<b> s</b>, or an <b>es</b> after <b>é</b>, the sound doesn’t change. In the following examples, the past participle of the verb <b>arriver</b> is always pronounced the same: <b>Il est arrivé</b> (eel ey tah-ree-vey) (<i>He arrived</i>); <b>Elle est arrivée</b> (ehl ey tah-ree-vey) (<i>She arrived</i>); <b>Ils sont arrivés</b> (eel soN tah-ree-vey) (<i>They arrived</i>); <b>Elles sont arrivées</b> (ehl soN tah-ree-vey) (<i>They</i> [feminine] <i>arrived</i>).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>é, er, ez:</b> These same-sounding letters are often found in verb forms: <b>Il a parlé</b> (eel ah pahr-ley) (<i>He spoke</i><i>/</i><i>has spoken</i>); <b>Il va parler</b> (ehl ah pahr-ley) (<i>He’s going to speak</i>);<b> Vous parlez </b>(vooh pahr-ley) (<i>you </i>[formal singular or any plural] <i>speak/are speaking</i>).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>ô, ot, eau: </b>In the following words, the vowel sound is the same: <b>tôt</b> (toh) (early), <b>lot</b> (loh) (<i>prize, batch</i>),<b> eau</b> (oh) (<i>water</i>).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Beware that the vowel <b>o</b> followed by a double consonant plus mute <b>e</b> becomes a softer sound (as in the following feminine adjectives) than when it stands alone or is followed by a mute consonant: <b>sotte</b> (suhht) (<i>silly</i>), <b>grosse</b> (gruhhs) (<i>big, fat</i>), <b>bonne</b> (buhhn) (<i>good</i>).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>en, em, an, am:</b> These letters are pronounced the same when found in isolation (like <b>en</b>) or before a consonant. Before a <b>b</b> or a <b>p</b>, expect to find an <b>m</b> instead of an <b>n</b>: <b>en France </b>(ahN frahNs) (<i>in France</i>); <b>remplir</b> (rahN-pleer) (<i>to fill</i>); <b>ambassade</b> (ahN-bah-sahd) (<i>embassy</i>).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>on, om:</b> These letter combinations are pronounced the same before a consonant. Note that before a <b>b</b> or <b>p</b>, <b>m</b> appears instead of <b>n</b>: <b>on tombe</b> (ohN tohNb) (<i>one falls</i>); <b>ronfler</b> (rohN-fley) (<i>to snor</i><i>e</i>).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>tion, (s)sion:</b> These combinations found in feminine nouns are pronounced the same in French:<b> ration</b> (rah-syohN) (<i>ration</i>), <b>tension</b> (tahN-syohN) (<i>tension</i>), <b>sécession</b> (sey-sey-syohN) (<i>secession</i>).</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Articles and adjectives: Short words before French nouns","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>In French, you almost always use an article or short adjective before a noun or noun phrase.<i> </i>These words translate as <i>the, a/an, some, this, that, these, those, which, what, my, your, his, her, </i>and so on.</p>\n<p>The following tables show these common little words in all their forms — masculine and feminine, singular and plural, before a consonant and before a vowel or mute <b>h</b>, and sometimes in various grammatical persons. <i>Definite articles</i> refer to something specific,<i> indefinite articles </i>refer to something unspecific, and <i>partitive articles</i> refer to a part of something. <i>Demonstrative adjectives </i>differentiate and compare things, <i>interrogative adjectives </i>ask for information, and<i> possessive adjectives </i>identify the owner of something.</p>\n<table>\n<caption>Articles and Demonstrative and Interrogative Adjectives</caption>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Gender and Number</th>\n<th>Definite Articles (the)</th>\n<th>Indefinite Articles (a/an, some)</th>\n<th>Partitive Articles (some)</th>\n<th>Demonstrative Adj. (this/that, these/those)</th>\n<th>Interrogative Adj. (which/what)</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Masc. singular</td>\n<td><b>le, l’</b> (before vowel or mute <b>h</b>)</td>\n<td><b>un</b></td>\n<td><b>du, de l</b>’ (before vowel or mute <b>h</b>)</td>\n<td><b>ce, cet</b> (before vowel or mute <b>h</b>)</td>\n<td><b>quel</b></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Fem. singular</td>\n<td><b>la, l’</b> (before vowel or mute <b>h</b>)</td>\n<td><b>une</b></td>\n<td><b>de la, de l’</b> (before vowel or mute <b>h</b>)</td>\n<td><b>cette</b></td>\n<td><b>quelle</b></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Plural</td>\n<td><b>les</b></td>\n<td><b>des</b></td>\n<td><b>des</b></td>\n<td><b>ces</b></td>\n<td><b>quels</b> (masc.), <b>quelles</b> (fem.)</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<table>\n<caption>Possessive Adjectives</caption>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Meaning</th>\n<th>Singular Masc. Object</th>\n<th>Singular Fem. Object</th>\n<th>Plural Object</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>my</i></td>\n<td><b>mon</b></td>\n<td><b>ma, mon</b> (before vowel or mute <b>h</b>)</td>\n<td><b>mes</b></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>your</i> (singular familiar)</td>\n<td><b>ton</b></td>\n<td><b>ta, ton</b> (before vowel or mute <b>h</b>)</td>\n<td><b>tes</b></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>his/her</i></td>\n<td><b>son</b></td>\n<td><b>sa, son</b> (before vowel or mute <i></i><b>h</b>)</td>\n<td><b>ses</b></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>our</i></td>\n<td><b>notre</b></td>\n<td><b>notre</b></td>\n<td><b>nos</b></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>your</i> (plural or singular formal)</td>\n<td><b>votre</b></td>\n<td><b>votre</b></td>\n<td><b>vos</b></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>their</i></td>\n<td><b>leur</b></td>\n<td><b>leur</b></td>\n<td><b>leurs</b></td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Common idiomatic avoir expressions","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Many common French expressions use the verb <b>avoir</b> (<i>to have</i>), whereas their English translation is the verb<b> </b><i>to be. </i>Here are some <b>avoir </b>expressions you should know:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir l’air</b> (<i>to appear</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir . . . ans</b> (<i>to be . . . years old</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir besoin de</b> (<i>to need</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir de la chance</b> (<i>to be lucky</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir la chance de</b> (<i>to be lucky to</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir chaud</b> (<i>to be hot</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir envie</b> (<i>to feel like</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir faim</b> (<i>to be hungry</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir froid</b> (<i>to be cold</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir l’habitude de</b> (<i>to be accustomed to</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir l’intention de</b> (<i>to intend to</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir mal</b> (<i>to hurt/be in pain</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir peur</b> (<i>to be afraid</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir raison</b> (<i>to be right</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir soif</b> (<i>to be thirsty</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir sommeil </b>(<i>to be sleepy</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>avoir tort</b> (<i>to be wrong</i>)</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Common idiomatic faire expressions","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Many common French expressions use the verb <b>faire</b><b> </b>(<i>to make/do</i>), whereas their English translation is another verb, often <i>to be </i>or <i>to go.</i><i> </i>Here are some <b>faire</b> expressions you should know:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>faire des achats</b> (<i>to go shopping</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>faire du basket/foot</b> (<i>to play basketball/soccer</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>faire beau/mauvais</b> (<i>to be nice/bad </i><i>[</i><i>weather</i><i>]</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>faire la bise</b> (<i>to give a kiss on each cheek as a greeting</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>faire chaud/froid</b> (<i>to be hot/cold </i><i>[</i><i>weather</i><i>]</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>faire la cuisine</b> (<i>to do the cooking</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>faire . . . jour/nuit</b> (<i>to be daytime/nighttime</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>faire mal à</b> (<i>to hurt [someone]</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>faire le ménage</b> (<i>to do the housekeeping</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>faire peur à</b> (<i>to scare/frighten </i><i>[</i><i>someone</i><i>]</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>faire une promenade</b> (<i>to go for a walk</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>faire du vélo/de la moto</b> (<i>to ride a bike/motorcycle</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>faire un voyage</b> (<i>to go on a trip</i>)</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-02-22T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208221},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:52:57+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-02-15T19:31:46+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:07+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Learning Languages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33689"},"slug":"learning-languages","categoryId":33689},{"name":"French","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"},"slug":"french","categoryId":33695}],"title":"French Verbs For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"french verbs for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"french-verbs-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜所搜素座舱seo":{"metaDescription":"If you want to speak French, you need to learn French verbs. Here's a handy guide to conjugating different the types of verbs.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"If you’re studying French, you need to get a handle on French verbs. Luckily, there’s a pattern to <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/languages/french/how-to-conjugate-regular-french-verbs/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">conjugating regular French verbs</a> into the simple and compound tenses, so once you know how to conjugate one, you know hundreds! Learn how to give commands, directions, or requests by studying the imperative conjugations of French verbs. You can also check out these <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/languages/french/five-frequently-mixed-up-french-verbs/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">five frequently mixed-up verbs</a>.","description":"If you’re studying French, you need to get a handle on French verbs. Luckily, there’s a pattern to <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/languages/french/how-to-conjugate-regular-french-verbs/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">conjugating regular French verbs</a> into the simple and compound tenses, so once you know how to conjugate one, you know hundreds! Learn how to give commands, directions, or requests by studying the imperative conjugations of French verbs. You can also check out these <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/languages/french/five-frequently-mixed-up-french-verbs/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">five frequently mixed-up verbs</a>.","blurb":"","authors":[],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33695,"title":"French","slug":"french","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208557,"title":"French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208557"}},{"articleId":208489,"title":"Intermediate French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"intermediate-french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208489"}},{"articleId":208221,"title":"French All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208221"}},{"articleId":208001,"title":"French Grammar For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208001"}},{"articleId":201525,"title":"Shopping in French Stores","slug":"shopping-in-french-stores","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/201525"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":0,"slug":null,"isbn":null,"categoryList":null,"amazon":null,"image":null,"title":null,"testBankPinActivationLink":null,"bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":null,"authors":null,"_links":null},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;french&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b1b7049f\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;french&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b1b70f03\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":184343,"title":"Conjugating the Simple Tenses of Regular French Verbs","slug":"conjugating-the-simple-tenses-of-regular-french-verbs","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/184343"}},{"articleId":184344,"title":"Conjugating Compound Tenses with Regular French Verbs","slug":"conjugating-compound-tenses-with-regular-french-verbs","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/184344"}},{"articleId":184220,"title":"Imperative Forms of French Verbs","slug":"imperative-forms-of-french-verbs","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/184220"}}],"content":[{"title":"Conjugating the simple tenses of regular French verbs","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If the infinitive of a regular French verb ends in &#8211;<b>er</b>, <b>-ir</b>, or &#8211;<b>re</b>, you can follow a fixed pattern in conjugating the verb. If you learn to conjugate one verb in each of the groups, you will know how to conjugate hundreds of others.</p>\n<p>The following chart has the conjugation of the five simple tenses of three common regular verbs: parl<b>er</b> (to speak), fin<b>ir</b> (to finish), and vend<b>re</b> (to sell). Just take the appropriate stem for each tense and add the required ending.</p>\n<table>\n<caption>Regular -er Verb Endings</caption>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Tense (stem)</th>\n<th>je</th>\n<th>tu</th>\n<th>il/elle/on</th>\n<th>nous</th>\n<th>vous</th>\n<th>ils/elles</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Present (parl)</b></td>\n<td>-e</td>\n<td>-es</td>\n<td>-e</td>\n<td>-ons</td>\n<td>-ez</td>\n<td>-ent</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Imperfect (parl)</b></td>\n<td>-ais</td>\n<td>-ais</td>\n<td>-ait</td>\n<td>-ions</td>\n<td>-iez</td>\n<td>-aient</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Future (parler)</b></td>\n<td>-ai</td>\n<td>-as</td>\n<td>-a</td>\n<td>-ons</td>\n<td>-ez</td>\n<td>-ont</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Conditiona</b><b>l (parler)</b></td>\n<td>-ais</td>\n<td>-ais</td>\n<td>-ait</td>\n<td>-ions</td>\n<td>-iez</td>\n<td>-aient</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Subjunctive (parl)</b></td>\n<td>-e</td>\n<td>-es</td>\n<td>-e</td>\n<td>-ions</td>\n<td>-iez</td>\n<td>-ent</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<table>\n<caption>Regular -ir Verb Endings</caption>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Tense (stem)</th>\n<th>je</th>\n<th>tu</th>\n<th>il/elle/on</th>\n<th>nous</th>\n<th>vous</th>\n<th>ils/elles</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Present (fini)</b></td>\n<td>-s</td>\n<td>-s</td>\n<td>-t</td>\n<td>-ssons</td>\n<td>-ssez</td>\n<td>-ssent</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Imperfect (finiss)</b></td>\n<td>-ais</td>\n<td>-ais</td>\n<td>-ait</td>\n<td>-ions</td>\n<td>-iez</td>\n<td>-aient</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Future (finir)</b></td>\n<td>-ai</td>\n<td>-as</td>\n<td>-a</td>\n<td>-ons</td>\n<td>-ez</td>\n<td>-ont</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Conditional (finir)</b></td>\n<td>-ais</td>\n<td>-ais</td>\n<td>-ait</td>\n<td>-ions</td>\n<td>-iez</td>\n<td>-aient</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Subjunctive (finiss)</b></td>\n<td>-e</td>\n<td>-es</td>\n<td>-e</td>\n<td>-ions</td>\n<td>-iez</td>\n<td>-ent</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<table>\n<caption>Regular -re Verb Endings</caption>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Tense (stem)</th>\n<th>je</th>\n<th>tu</th>\n<th>il/elle/on</th>\n<th>nous</th>\n<th>vous</th>\n<th>ils/elles</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Present (vend)</b></td>\n<td>-s</td>\n<td>-s</td>\n<td>(nothing)</td>\n<td>-ons</td>\n<td>-ez</td>\n<td>-ent</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Imperfect (vend)</b></td>\n<td>-ais</td>\n<td>-ais</td>\n<td>-ait</td>\n<td>-ions</td>\n<td>-iez</td>\n<td>-aient</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Future (vendr)</b></td>\n<td>-ai</td>\n<td>-as</td>\n<td>-a</td>\n<td>-ons</td>\n<td>-ez</td>\n<td>-ont</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Conditional (vendr)</b></td>\n<td>-ais</td>\n<td>-ais</td>\n<td>-ait</td>\n<td>-ions</td>\n<td>-iez</td>\n<td>-aient</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Subjunctive (vend)</b></td>\n<td>-e</td>\n<td>-es</td>\n<td>-e</td>\n<td>-ions</td>\n<td>-iez</td>\n<td>-ent</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Conjugating compound tenses with regular French verbs","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>To conjugate French compound tenses, you need an auxiliary verb, usually <b>avoir</b> (to have) or <b>être</b> (to be), plus the past participle of the desired verb. The following example shows French compound tenses conjugated with the past participles of <b>parler</b> (to speak) with <b>avoir</b> as the auxiliary and <b>arriver</b> (to arrive) with <b>être</b> as the auxiliary.</p>\n<table>\n<caption>Creating Compound Tenses with the Auxiliary Avoir (Parler)</caption>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Tense</th>\n<th>je</th>\n<th>tu</th>\n<th>il/elle/on</th>\n<th>nous</th>\n<th>vous</th>\n<th>ils/elles</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Passé Composé</b></td>\n<td>ai parlé</td>\n<td>as parlé</td>\n<td>a parlé</td>\n<td>avons parlé</td>\n<td>avez parlé</td>\n<td>ont parlé</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Pluperfect</b></td>\n<td>avais parlé</td>\n<td>avais parlé</td>\n<td>avait parlé</td>\n<td>avions parlé</td>\n<td>aviez parlé</td>\n<td>avaient parlé</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Future Perfect</b></td>\n<td>aurai parlé</td>\n<td>auras parlé</td>\n<td>aura parlé</td>\n<td>aurons parlé</td>\n<td>aurez parlé</td>\n<td>auront parlé</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Past Conditional</b></td>\n<td>aurais parlé</td>\n<td>aurais parlé</td>\n<td>aurait parlé</td>\n<td>aurions parlé</td>\n<td>auriez parlé</td>\n<td>auraient parlé</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Past Subjunctive</b></td>\n<td>aie parlé</td>\n<td>aies parlé</td>\n<td>ait parlé</td>\n<td>ayons parlé</td>\n<td>ayez parlé</td>\n<td>aient parlé</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<table>\n<caption>Creating Compound Tenses with the Auxiliary Être (Arriver)</caption>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Tense</th>\n<th>je</th>\n<th>tu</th>\n<th>il/elle/on</th>\n<th>nous</th>\n<th>vous</th>\n<th>ils/elles</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Passé Composé</b></td>\n<td>suis arrivé (e)</td>\n<td>es arrivé (e)</td>\n<td>est arrivé (e)</td>\n<td>sommes arrivés (es)</td>\n<td>êtes arrivé (e)(s) (es)</td>\n<td>sont arrivés (es)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Pluperfect</b></td>\n<td>étais arrivé (e)</td>\n<td>étais arrivé (e)</td>\n<td>était arrivé (e)</td>\n<td>étions arrivés (es)</td>\n<td>étiez arrivé (e) (s) (es)</td>\n<td>étaient arrivés (es)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Future Perfect</b></td>\n<td>serai arrivé (e)</td>\n<td>seras arrivé (e)</td>\n<td>sera arrivé (e)</td>\n<td>serons arrivés (es)</td>\n<td>serez arrivé (e) (s) (es)</td>\n<td>seront arrivés (es)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Past Conditional</b></td>\n<td>serais arrivé (e)</td>\n<td>serais arrivé (e)</td>\n<td>serait arrivé (e)</td>\n<td>serions arrivés (es)</td>\n<td>seriez arrivé (e) (s) (es)</td>\n<td>seraient arrivés (es)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>Past Subjunctive</b></td>\n<td>sois arrivé (e)</td>\n<td>sois arrivé (e)</td>\n<td>soit arrivé (e)</td>\n<td>soyons arrivés (es)</td>\n<td>soyez arrivé (e) (s) (es)</td>\n<td>soient arrivés (es)</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Imperative forms of French verbs","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>In French, the imperative mood expresses an order, request, or directive and is created with regular verbs by using the verb directly and eliminating the subject pronoun.</p>\n<p>The imperative uses the present tense of most verbs and the conjugations of three subject pronouns: tu (when speaking to someone familiar), vous (when speaking to someone unfamiliar, older, a group, or a superior), and nous (when including yourself in the group).</p>\n<p>Regular <b>&#8211;</b><b>er</b>, <b>-ir</b>, and <b>&#8211;</b><b>re</b> verbs follow the same pattern in commands as shown in the following example, along with an example of a command using a pronominal verb and pronoun.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Parler (to speak)</th>\n<th>Finir (to finish)</th>\n<th>Vendre (to sell)</th>\n<th>Se laver (to wash)</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Parle!</td>\n<td>Finis!</td>\n<td>Vends!</td>\n<td>Lave-toi!</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Parlons!</td>\n<td>Finissons!</td>\n<td>Vendons!</td>\n<td>Lavons-nous!</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Parlez!</td>\n<td>Finissez!</td>\n<td>Vendez!</td>\n<td>Lavez-vous!</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-08-30T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208461},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:53:32+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-01-19T19:21:29+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Learning Languages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33689"},"slug":"learning-languages","categoryId":33689},{"name":"French","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"},"slug":"french","categoryId":33695}],"title":"French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"french for 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You'll also find the dates and numbers in French.","description":"Whether you’re planning a trip to France or to a French-speaking country or you just want to learn a little French, knowing a few helpful expressions can make you feel more comfortable with the language.\r\n\r\nIn this handy Cheat Sheet, you'll find basic French expressions, questions for gathering information or asking for help, and phrases to use in a restaurant. You'll also find the dates and numbers in French.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9680,"name":"Zoe Erotopoulos","slug":"zoe-erotopoulos","description":" <p><b>Laura K. Lawless</b> is the author of three language websites (French, Spanish, and English) and several successful language titles including <i>Intermediate French For Dummies.</i></p><p><b>Zoe Erotopoulos, PhD</b> has taught French for more than 30 years. 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Williams</b>, and <b>Dominique Wenzel</b> are highly regarded French instructors and writers.</p> <p><b>Zoe Erotopoulos</b>, PhD, teaches in the Department of Modern Languages and Literature at Fairfield University in Fairfield, Connecticut.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10147"}},{"authorId":10148,"name":"Dominique Wenzel","slug":"dominique-wenzel","description":" <b>Berlitz</b> has taught languages to millions of people for more than 130 years. <p><b>Dodi-Katrin Schmidt</b>, <b>Michelle M. Williams</b>, and <b>Dominique Wenzel</b> are highly regarded French instructors and writers.</p> <p><b>Zoe Erotopoulos</b>, PhD, teaches in the Department of Modern Languages and Literature at Fairfield University in Fairfield, Connecticut.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10148"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33695,"title":"French","slug":"french","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":187270,"title":"Basic Questions in French","slug":"basic-questions-in-french","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/187270"}},{"articleId":187271,"title":"Ordering in a French Restaurant","slug":"ordering-in-a-french-restaurant","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/187271"}},{"articleId":187268,"title":"French Phrases for Emergencies","slug":"french-phrases-for-emergencies","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/187268"}},{"articleId":187269,"title":"The French Calendar","slug":"the-french-calendar","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/187269"}},{"articleId":187264,"title":"Useful French Expressions and Greetings","slug":"useful-french-expressions-and-greetings","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/187264"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208489,"title":"Intermediate French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"intermediate-french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208489"}},{"articleId":208461,"title":"French Verbs For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-verbs-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208461"}},{"articleId":208221,"title":"French All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208221"}},{"articleId":208001,"title":"French Grammar For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208001"}},{"articleId":201525,"title":"Shopping in French Stores","slug":"shopping-in-french-stores","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/201525"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282215,"slug":"french-for-dummies-with-cd-2nd-edition","isbn":"9781118004647","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1118004647/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1118004647/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1118004647-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1118004647/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1118004647/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/french-for-dummies-with-cd-2nd-edition-cover-9781118004647-201x255.jpg","width":201,"height":255},"title":"French For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<b>Berlitz</b> has taught languages to millions of people for more than 130 years. <p><b data-author-id=\"10146\">Dodi-Katrin Schmidt</b>, <b data-author-id=\"10147\">Michelle M. 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ahN-gleh?</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>How are you?</i></td>\n<td><b>Comment allez-vous?</b></td>\n<td>koh-mahN-tah-ley-vooh?</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Would you help me please?</i></td>\n<td><b>Pourriez-vous m’aider?</b></td>\n<td>pooh-ree-ey vooh mey-dey ?</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>What’s your name?</i></td>\n<td><b>Comment vous appelez-vous?</b></td>\n<td>koh-mahN vooh-zah-pley-vooh?</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>What time is it?</i></td>\n<td><b>Quelle heure est-il ?</b></td>\n<td>kehl uhr eh-teel?</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>What’s the weather like?</i></td>\n<td><b>Quel temps fait-il?</b></td>\n<td>kehl tahN feh-teel?</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>How much does . . . cost?</i></td>\n<td><b>Combien coûte…?</b></td>\n<td>kohN-byaN kooht. . . ?</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Where can I find . . .?</i></td>\n<td><b>Où est-ce que je peux trouver. . .?</b></td>\n<td>ooh ehs-kuh zhuh puh trooh-vey&#8230;.?</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Where are the bathrooms?</i></td>\n<td><b>Où sont les toilettes?</b></td>\n<td>ooh sohN ley twah-leht?</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i></i><i>Do you have. . . ?</i></td>\n<td><b>Avez-vous…?</b></td>\n<td>ah-vey vooh. . . ?</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Where is. . . ?</i></td>\n<td><b>Où est…?</b></td>\n<td>ooh eh…?</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Could you please speak more slowly?</i></td>\n<td><b>Pourriez-vous parler plus lentement, s’il vous<br />\nplaît?</b></td>\n<td>pooh-ree-ey-vooh pahr-ley plew lahNt-mahN, seel vooh pleh?</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Could you repeat that, please?</i></td>\n<td><b>Pourriez-vous répéter, s’il vous<br />\nplaît?</b></td>\n<td>pooh-ree-ey-vooh rey-pey-tey, seel vooh pleh?</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Useful French expressions and greetings","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>These French greetings and expressions will come in very handy when you travel to a French-speaking country. With these expressions, you can communicate politely when speaking to French natives.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>English</th>\n<th>French</th>\n<th>Pronunciation</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Hello/Good day!</i></td>\n<td><b>Bonjour!</b></td>\n<td>bohN-zhoohr!</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Good evening!</i></td>\n<td><b>Bon soir!</b></td>\n<td>bohN-swahr!</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Good-bye!</i></td>\n<td><b>Au revoir!</b></td>\n<td>ohr-vwahr!</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Please.</i></td>\n<td><b>S’il vous plaît.</b></td>\n<td>seel vooh pleh.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>You’re welcome.</i></td>\n<td><b>Je vous en prie./</b><b>De rien</b><b>.</b></td>\n<td>zhuh vooh-zahN pree./duh ryahN.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Thank you.</i></td>\n<td><b>Merci.</b></td>\n<td>mehr-see.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Excuse me.</i></td>\n<td><b>Pardon./Excusez-moi.</b><b><i></i></b></td>\n<td>pahr-dohN./eks-kew-zey-mwah.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>My name is . . . .</i></td>\n<td><b>Je m’appelle. . . .</b></td>\n<td>zhuh mah-pehl. . . .</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Pleased to meet you.</i></td>\n<td><b>Enchanté./Enchantée.</b></td>\n<td>ahN-shahN-tey.</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"French phrases for emergencies","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If you’re traveling in a French-speaking country and find yourself in an urgent situation, you can get the assistance you need by memorizing these important French phrases.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>English</th>\n<th>French</th>\n<th>Pronunciation</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Help!</i></td>\n<td><b>Au secours!</b></td>\n<td>oh skoohr!</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Police!</i></td>\n<td><b>Police!</b></td>\n<td>poh-lees!</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Fire!</i></td>\n<td><b>Au feu!</b></td>\n<td>Oh fuh!</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Get a doctor!</i></td>\n<td><b>Cherchez un médecin/un docteur!</b></td>\n<td>sheh-rshey uhN meyd-saN/uhN dohk-tuhr!</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>I am sick.</i></td>\n<td><b>Je suis malade.</b></td>\n<td>zhuh swee mah-lahd.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Could you indicate/point out [to me] how to get to. . .<br />\n?)</i></td>\n<td><b>Pourriez-vous m’indiquer comment aller. . . ?</b></td>\n<td>pooh-ree-ey-vooh maN-dee-key kohN-maN-tah-ley. . . ?</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"The French calendar","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Getting to know the days and months of the French calendar helps you keep track of your travel plans, French holidays, and engagements. The following tables list the days of the week and months of the year in French.</p>\n<table>\n<caption>Days of the Week in French</caption>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>English</th>\n<th>French</th>\n<th>Pronunciaton</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Monday</i></td>\n<td><b>lundi</b></td>\n<td>luhN-dee</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Tuesday</i></td>\n<td><b>mardi</b></td>\n<td>mahr-dee</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Wednesday</i></td>\n<td><b>mercredi</b></td>\n<td>mehr-kruh-dee</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Thursday</i></td>\n<td><b>jeudi</b></td>\n<td>zhuh-dee</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Friday</i></td>\n<td><b>vendredi</b></td>\n<td>vahN-druh-dee</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Saturday</i></td>\n<td><b>samedi</b></td>\n<td>sahm-dee</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Sunday</i></td>\n<td><b>dimanche</b></td>\n<td>dee-mahNsh</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<table>\n<caption>Months of the Year in French</caption>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>English</th>\n<th>French</th>\n<th>Pronunciation</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>January</i></td>\n<td><b>janvier</b></td>\n<td>zhahN-vyey</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>February</i></td>\n<td><b>février</b></td>\n<td>fey-vryey</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>March</i></td>\n<td><b>mars</b></td>\n<td>mahrs</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>April</i></td>\n<td><b>avril</b></td>\n<td>ah-vreel</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>May</i></td>\n<td><b>mai</b></td>\n<td>meh</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>June</i></td>\n<td><b>juin</b></td>\n<td>zhwaN</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>July</i></td>\n<td><b>juillet</b></td>\n<td>zhwee-yeh</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>August</i></td>\n<td><b>août</b></td>\n<td>ooht</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>September</i></td>\n<td><b>septembre</b></td>\n<td>sehp-tahN-bruh</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>October</i></td>\n<td><b>octobre</b></td>\n<td>ohk-toh-bruh</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>November</i></td>\n<td><b>novembre</b></td>\n<td>noh-vahN-bruh</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>December</i></td>\n<td><b>décembre</b></td>\n<td>dey-sahN-bruh</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Ordering in a French restaurant","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If you go to a French restaurant, these expressions can come in very handy. Practice them first, so that you can relax and enjoy the dining experience.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>English</th>\n<th>French</th>\n<th>Pronunciation</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>The menu, please.</i></td>\n<td><b>Le menu, s’il vous plaît</b><b>.</b></td>\n<td>luh muh-new, seel vooh pleh.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>I’d like</i><i>. . .</i> <i>.</i></td>\n<td><b>Je voudrais. . . .</b></td>\n<td>zhuh vooh-dreh. . . .</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>What do you recommend/suggest?</i></td>\n<td><b>Qu’est-ce que vous recommandez/suggérez?</b><br />\n<b></b></td>\n<td>kehs-kuh vooh ruh-kohh-mahN-dey/sooh-zhey-rey?</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>Another (beer) please.</i></td>\n<td><b>Encore (une bière)</b><b>,</b> <b>s’il vous<br />\nplaît.</b></td>\n<td>ahN-kohr (ewn byehr), seel vooh pleh.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>The check, please.</i></td>\n<td><b>L’addition, s’il vous plaît.</b></td>\n<td>lah-dee-syohN, seel vooh pleh.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><i>A receipt, please.</i></td>\n<td><b>Un reçu, s’il vous plaît.</b></td>\n<td>uhN ruh-sew, seel vooh pleh.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Enjoy your meal.</td>\n<td><b>Bon appétit!</b></td>\n<td>bohN-nah-pey-tee!</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"French numbers","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>When traveling in a French-speaking country, you need to know numbers for shopping, dining, transportation, and exchanging money. With this list, you can start practicing numbers in French.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td>0 <b>zéro</b> (zey-roh)</td>\n<td>17 <b>dix-sept</b> <i></i>(dee-seht)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>1 <b>un</b> <i></i>(uhN)</td>\n<td>18 <b>dix-huit</b> <i></i>(deez-weet)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>2 <b>deux</b> <i></i>(duh)</td>\n<td>19 <b>dix-neuf</b> <i></i>(deez-nuhf)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>3 <b>trois</b> <i></i>(trwah)</td>\n<td>20 <b>vingt</b> <i></i>(vaN)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>4 <b>quatre</b> <i></i>(kah-truh)</td>\n<td>21 <b>vingt</b> <b></b><b>et</b> <b></b><b>un</b><br />\n<i></i>(vaN-tey-uhN)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>5 <b>cinq</b> <i></i>(saNk)</td>\n<td>22 <b>vingt-deux</b> <i></i>(vahNt-duh)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>6 <b>six</b><b><i></i></b>(sees)</td>\n<td>30 <b>trente</b> (trahNt)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>7 <b>sept</b> <i></i>(seht)</td>\n<td>40 <b>quarante</b> (kah-rahNt)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>8 <b>huit</b> <i></i>(weet)</td>\n<td>50 <b>cinquante</b> <i></i>(saN-kahNt)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>9 <b>neuf</b> <i></i>(nuhf)</td>\n<td>60 <b>soixante</b> (swah-sahNt)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>10 <b></b><b>dix</b> <i></i>(dees)</td>\n<td>70 <b>soixante-dix</b> (swah-sahNt-dees)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>11 <b>onze</b> <i></i>(ohNz)</td>\n<td>80 <b>quatre-vingts (</b>kah-truh-vaN)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>12 <b>douze</b> <i></i>(doohz)</td>\n<td>90 <b>quatre-vingt-dix</b> (kah-truh-vaN-dees)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>13 <b>treize</b> <i></i>(trehz)</td>\n<td>100 <b>cent</b> <i></i>(sahN)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>14 <b>quatorze</b> <i></i>(kah-tohrz)</td>\n<td>200 <b>deux cents</b> (duh sahN)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>15 <b></b><b>quinze</b> <i></i>(kaNz)</td>\n<td>1000 <b>mille</b> (meel)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>16 <b>seize</b> <i></i>(sehz)</td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-01-19T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208557},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:49:36+00:00","modifiedTime":"2023-01-19T16:24:43+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:19:02+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Learning Languages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33689"},"slug":"learning-languages","categoryId":33689},{"name":"French","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"},"slug":"french","categoryId":33695}],"title":"French Grammar For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"french grammar for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜所搜素座舱seo":{"metaDescription":"French grammar is all about using French words in the correct way so people can understand your meaning. You can learn a lot of French words by browsing an Engl","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"French grammar is all about using French words in the correct way so people can understand your meaning. You can learn a lot of French words by browsing an English-French dictionary, but to make sense, you need to know the rules of French grammar.\r\n\r\nSome of the basics include making nouns plural, adding description by pairing adjectives correctly to nouns, and using pronominal verbs to talk about actions done to you or someone else.","description":"French grammar is all about using French words in the correct way so people can understand your meaning. You can learn a lot of French words by browsing an English-French dictionary, but to make sense, you need to know the rules of French grammar.\r\n\r\nSome of the basics include making nouns plural, adding description by pairing adjectives correctly to nouns, and using pronominal verbs to talk about actions done to you or someone else.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9721,"name":"Veronique Mazet","slug":"veronique-mazet","description":" <p><b>V&#233;ronique Mazet</b> has a doctorate in French from the University of Texas at Austin and is the author of two successful grammar books. She currently teaches French at Austin Community College in Austin, Texas.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9721"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33695,"title":"French","slug":"french","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":168911,"title":"Building Negative Sentences in French","slug":"building-negative-sentences-in-french","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168911"}},{"articleId":168910,"title":"Checking Out the Conditional in French","slug":"checking-out-the-conditional-in-french","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168910"}},{"articleId":168909,"title":"Putting Prepositions in French Sentences","slug":"putting-prepositions-in-french-sentences","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168909"}},{"articleId":168904,"title":"Ten Common French Grammar Mistakes (and How to Avoid Them)","slug":"ten-common-french-grammar-mistakes-and-how-to-avoid-them","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168904"}},{"articleId":168132,"title":"Understanding French Pronominal Verbs","slug":"understanding-french-pronominal-verbs","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168132"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208557,"title":"French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208557"}},{"articleId":208489,"title":"Intermediate French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"intermediate-french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208489"}},{"articleId":208461,"title":"French Verbs For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-verbs-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208461"}},{"articleId":208221,"title":"French All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208221"}},{"articleId":201525,"title":"Shopping in French Stores","slug":"shopping-in-french-stores","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/201525"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282216,"slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies","isbn":"9781118502518","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1118502515-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/french-grammar-for-dummies-cover-9781118502518-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"French Grammar For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9721\">Véronique Mazet</b> has a doctorate in French from the University of Texas at Austin and is the author of two successful grammar books. She currently teaches French at Austin Community College in Austin, Texas.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9721,"name":"Veronique Mazet","slug":"veronique-mazet","description":" <p><b>V&#233;ronique Mazet</b> has a doctorate in French from the University of Texas at Austin and is the author of two successful grammar books. She currently teaches French at Austin Community College in Austin, Texas.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9721"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;french&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118502518&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b16407a0\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;french&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118502518&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b1641238\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":168131,"title":"How to Make French Nouns Plural","slug":"how-to-make-french-nouns-plural","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168131"}},{"articleId":168130,"title":"Matching French Adjectives to the Nouns They Describe","slug":"matching-french-adjectives-to-the-nouns-they-describe","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168130"}},{"articleId":168132,"title":"Understanding French Pronominal Verbs","slug":"understanding-french-pronominal-verbs","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168132"}}],"content":[{"title":"How to make French nouns plural","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Create plural nouns in French by adding an <i>s</i> or <i>x,</i> or by substituting <i>–</i><i>aux</i> for <i>–al</i>. Making French nouns plural, however, takes a different tack when it comes to family names and nouns that end in –<i>s, </i><i>–</i><i>x, </i>or<i> </i><i>–</i><i>z.</i> In French grammar, here&#8217;s how you turn a singular noun into a plural noun:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">For most nouns, you add &#8211;<b>s</b> to the end. For example: <b>résultat</b> (<i>result</i>) becomes <b>résultats </b>(<i>results</i>); <b>fleur</b> (<i>flower</i>) becomes <b>fleurs </b>(<i>flowers</i>).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Nouns that end in &#8211;<b>au</b> take &#8211;<b>x</b> in the plural. For example: <b>bateau</b> (<i>boat</i>) becomes <b>bateaux </b>(<i>boats</i>), and <b>manteau</b> (<i>overcoat</i>) becomes <b>manteaux </b>(<i>overcoats</i>).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Most nouns that end in &#8211;<b>ou</b> take &#8211;<b>s</b> in the plural, but some take &#8211;<b>x</b>. For example:<b> chou</b> (<i>cabbage</i>) becomes <b>choux</b> (<i>cabbages</i>), and <b>bijou</b> (<i>jewel</i>) becomes <b>bijoux</b> (<i>jewels</i>).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Nouns that end in &#8211;<b>al</b> drop that ending and use &#8211;<b>aux</b> in the plural. For example: <b>journal</b> (<i>newspaper</i>) becomes <b>journaux </b>(<i>newspapers</i>); <b>animal </b>(<i>animal</i>) becomes <b>animaux </b>(<i>animals</i>).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Nouns that end in &#8211;<b>s</b>, &#8211;<b>x</b>, or &#8211;<b>z</b> when they&#8217;re singular don&#8217;t change in the plural; you simply change the accompanying article. For example: <b>un Français </b>(<i>a Frenchman</i>) remains<b> des Français </b>(<i>Frenchmen</i>), and<i> </i><b>un virus </b>(<i>a virus</i>) remains<b> des virus </b>(<i>viruses</i>).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Family names aren&#8217;t pluralized in French. For example, <i>t</i><i>he Martins</i> lose the &#8211;<b>s</b> in French but keep the article: <b>Les Martin</b>.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Matching French adjectives to the nouns they describe","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>In French grammar, adjectives have to reflect both the gender (masculine or feminine) and the number of the nouns (singular or plural) they modify. Have a look:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Gender: </strong>All French nouns have a gender. If you want to describe a masculine noun, like <strong>le vélo </strong>(<em>the bicycle</em>), you need a masculine adjective to match, like <strong>le vélo noir </strong>(<em>the</em><em> b</em><em>l</em><em>ack bicycle</em>). But if a noun is feminine, like <strong>la voiture </strong>(<em>the car</em>), the adjective that accompanies the noun must be in its feminine form. For instance, to say <em>the black car</em>, you say <strong>la voiture noire. </strong>(Notice that the feminine version of <strong>noir</strong> has an <strong>e</strong> at the end.)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Number:</strong> A French noun can be singular or plural, regardless of the gender, and the adjective must match that. For several <em>black </em><em>bikes</em>, say <strong>les vélos noirs</strong>. To describe a group of <em>black cars</em>, say <strong>les voitures noires</strong>. (Notice that both adjectives have an <strong>s</strong> at the end.) And if you&#8217;re talking about <em>the black cars and the black bikes </em>together, the adjective is masculine and plural: <strong>les vélos et les voitures noirs</strong>.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Following are some general rules on how to modify a masculine singular adjective to make it feminine singular:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">The most common way to make an adjective feminine is to add an &#8211;<strong>e</strong> to its masculine singular form (which is the default form of the adjective found in a French dictionary).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Some masculine singular adjectives already end in &#8211;<strong>e</strong>. For those, don&#8217;t add an extra &#8211;<strong>e</strong> to form the feminine singular; they remain as is. For instance, <strong>aimable</strong> (<em>nice</em>), <strong>calme</strong> (<em>calm</em>), and <strong>utile</strong> (<em>useful</em>) have the same form in masculine singular and feminine singular.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">For most adjectives that end in a vowel + a consonant, double that consonant before adding the &#8211;<strong>e</strong> of the feminine. For example: <strong>bon</strong> (<em>good</em>) becomes <strong>bonne</strong>; <strong>gros</strong> (<em>fat</em>) becomes <strong>grosse</strong>; <strong>mignon</strong> (<em>cute</em>) becomes <strong>mignonne</strong>.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">For most adjectives that end in &#8211;<strong>eur</strong> or &#8211;<strong>eux</strong>, replace the ending with &#8211;<strong>euse </strong>to form the feminine. For example: <strong>amoureux</strong> (<em>in love</em>) becomes <strong>amoureuse</strong>, <strong>heureux</strong> (<em>fat</em>) becomes <strong>heureuse</strong>, and <strong>affreux</strong> (<em>atrocious</em>) becomes <strong>affreuse</strong>.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">For adjectives that end in &#8211;<strong>teur</strong>, replace that ending with &#8211;<strong>trice </strong>to form the feminine.<strong> Protecteur </strong>(<em>protective</em>) becomes <strong>protectrice</strong>,<strong> conservateur </strong>(<em>conservative</em>) becomes <strong>conservatrice</strong>, and so on.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">For adjectives that end in &#8211;<strong>er</strong>, replace the ending with &#8211;<strong>ère </strong>to form the feminine, like <strong>dernier</strong> (<em>last</em>) to <strong>dernière</strong>, <strong>premier </strong>(<em>first</em>) to <strong>première</strong>, and <strong>cher </strong>(<em>expensive</em>) to <strong>chère</strong>.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">For most adjectives that end in &#8211;<strong>et</strong>, replace &#8211;<strong>et</strong> with &#8211;<strong>ète</strong> to form the feminine. For example,<strong> discret </strong>(<em>discreet</em>) becomes <strong>discrète</strong>,<strong> complet </strong>(<em>complete</em>) becomes <strong>complète</strong>, and<strong> secret </strong>(<em>secret</em>) becomes <strong>secrète</strong>.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">For adjectives that end in &#8211;<strong>f</strong>, replace &#8211;<strong>f</strong> with &#8211;<strong>ve </strong>to form the feminine, like <strong>neuf </strong>(<em>new</em>) becomes <strong>neuve</strong>, and <strong>sportif </strong>(<em>athletic</em>) becomes <strong>sportive</strong>.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Adjectives of nationality that end in &#8211;<strong>ain</strong>, like <strong>américain </strong>(<em>American</em>) and <strong>mexicain </strong>(<em>Mexican</em>) don&#8217;t double the &#8211;<strong>n</strong>. They just add the &#8211;<strong>e</strong>.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Some adjectives have a completely irregular form that doesn&#8217;t follow any pattern. Here are the most common ones:</p>\n<table border=\"0\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Masculine Singular</th>\n<th>Feminine Singular</th>\n<th>English Translation</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><strong>beau</strong></td>\n<td><strong>belle</strong></td>\n<td><em>handsome/beautiful</em></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><strong>blanc</strong></td>\n<td><strong>blanche</strong></td>\n<td><em>white</em></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><strong>faux</strong></td>\n<td><strong>fausse</strong></td>\n<td><em>untrue</em></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><strong>long</strong></td>\n<td><strong>longue</strong></td>\n<td><em>long</em></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><strong>nouveau</strong></td>\n<td><strong>nouvelle</strong></td>\n<td><em>new</em></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><strong>roux</strong></td>\n<td><strong>rousse</strong></td>\n<td><em>red-haired</em></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><strong>vieux</strong></td>\n<td><strong>vieille</strong></td>\n<td><em>old</em></td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Here are some general rules on how to modify an adjective to make it plural:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">The regular way of marking the plural of an adjective is by adding an &#8211;<strong>s</strong> to the masculine form or the feminine form. For example, the masculine singular adjective <strong>vert</strong> (<em>green</em>) becomes <strong>verts </strong>in plural, and the feminine singular<strong> verte </strong>(<em>green</em>) becomes <strong>vertes </strong>in plural.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">If the adjective already ends in an &#8211;<strong>s</strong> or an &#8211;<strong>x</strong> in masculine singular, it doesn&#8217;t take another &#8211;<strong>s</strong> to form the plural. It remains as is and has the same form in masculine singular and plural. A few adjectives of this type are <strong>épais</strong> (<em>thick</em>), <strong>gris</strong> (<em>gray</em>), and<strong> curieux</strong> (<em>curious</em>).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">For masculine singular adjectives that end in &#8211;<strong>al</strong>, drop the &#8211;<strong>al</strong> and replace it with &#8211;<strong>aux</strong> to form the plural. For example, <strong>normal</strong> (<em>normal</em>) becomes <strong>normaux</strong> in plural.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Masculine singular adjectives that end in &#8211;<strong>eau</strong> add an &#8211;<strong>x</strong> instead of an &#8211;<strong>s</strong>. For instance, <strong>beau</strong> (<em>handsome</em>) becomes <strong>beaux</strong> in the plural, and <strong>nouveau</strong> (<em>new</em>) becomes <strong>nouveaux</strong>.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">The masculine singular adjective <strong>tout</strong> (<em>all</em>) becomes <strong>tous</strong> in the masculine plural.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Understanding French pronominal verbs","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>In French grammar, verbs called <i>pronomi</i><i>n</i><i>al verbs </i>use an extra pronoun. The extra pronouns are<i> reflexive, </i>meaning they typically reflect the subject of the verb, like <i>(to)</i> <i>oneself</i> does to a verb in English<i>.</i> The verbs fall into three categories:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Reflexive verbs:</b> Express an action done by the subject to itself, such as <b>Je me regarde </b>(<i>I look at myself</i>).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Reciprocal verbs:</b> Indicate that two subjects are doing something to one another, as in <b>Ils se parlent</b> (<i>They talk to each other</i>).</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Idiomatic pronominal verbs:</b> The extra pronoun indicates neither <i>to oneself </i>nor<i> to one another</i>, like <b>tu te souviens </b>(<i>you remember</i>).</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>You can identify a pronominal verb by its infinitive; it always has the pronoun <b>se</b> right before the infinitive, like in <b>se préparer </b>(<i>to get oneself ready</i>). These verbs are otherwise conjugated as if they didn&#8217;t have a reflexive pronoun. The only difference is that you also conjugate the added pronoun.</p>\n<p>Here&#8217;s how to match the reflexive pronouns to the subjects.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<th>Subject</th>\n<th>Reflexive Pronoun</th>\n<th>English Translation</th>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>je</b></td>\n<td><b>me (m&#8217;</b> before a vowel or a mute <b>-h)</b></td>\n<td><i>myself</i></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>tu</b></td>\n<td><b>te (t&#8217;</b> before a vowel or a mute <b>-h)</b></td>\n<td><i>yourself</i></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>il/elle/on</b></td>\n<td><b>se (s&#8217;</b> before a vowel or a mute <b>-h)</b></td>\n<td><i>himself/herself/oneself</i></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>nous</b></td>\n<td><b>nous</b></td>\n<td><i>ourselves</i></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>vous</b></td>\n<td><b>vous</b></td>\n<td><i>yourselves</i></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><b>ils/elles</b></td>\n<td><b>se (s&#8217;</b> before a vowel or a mute <b>-h)</b></td>\n<td><i>themselves</i></td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>To form the present tense of a pronominal verb, conjugate the verb in the present tense to match your subject; then change the reflexive pronoun to match the subject and place it immediately before the verb. Here&#8217;s a present tense conjugation of <b>se laver</b> (<i>to wash oneself</i>) as an example:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>je me lave</b> (<i>I wash</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>tu te laves</b> (<i>you</i> [singular informal] <i>wash</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>il/elle/on se lave</b> (<i>he/she/one washes</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>nous nous lavons</b> (<i>we wash</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>vous vous lavez</b> (<i>you</i> [plural and singular formal] <i>wash</i>)</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>ils/elles</b> <b>se lavent</b> (<i>they</i> [masculine and feminine] <i>wash</i>)</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>If a sentence has two verbs (one conjugated, the other in the infinitive), as in <i>I want to wash myself </i>or <i>I</i><i>&#8216;</i><i>m going to wash myself</i>, place the correct form of the reflexive pronoun before the infinitive like so: <b>Je vais me laver.</b></p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-01-19T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208001},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T14:59:51+00:00","modifiedTime":"2022-10-28T20:00:05+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:18:43+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Learning Languages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33689"},"slug":"learning-languages","categoryId":33689},{"name":"French","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"},"slug":"french","categoryId":33695}],"title":"How to Express Time in French","strippedTitle":"how to express time in french","slug":"how-to-express-time-in-french","canonicalUrl":"","搜所搜素座舱seo":{"metaDescription":"When traveling in a French-speaking country, you'll want to be able to understand the way people express time. Here's what you need to know.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"As you discuss days, months, and specific dates in French, you’re going to need tell time (<b>l’heure</b>) and probably with both the 12-hour and 24-hour clocks.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >How to express French time via the 12-hour clock</h2>\r\nTime is typically expressed based on a 12-hour clock. In French, you say the hour then the minutes, and it’s a little different from the way it’s done in English.\r\n\r\nTo tell a time on the hour in French, use<b> il est</b><b> </b>+ (number) + <b>heure(s).</b> For example: <b>il est deux heures</b> (it is two o’clock). <b>Note: </b>When it is one o’clock, say: <b>il est une heure</b> (it is one o’clock), using the feminine singular <b>une</b> instead of <b>un</b><b> </b>because the word <b>heure</b> (hour) is feminine.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Always say the word <b>heure(s) </b>when telling time. Even if familiar language often skips <b>il est, </b>it never skips <b>heure(s).</b> For example: <b>quelle heure est-il?</b> (what time is it?) <b>Huit heures </b>(eight o’clock).</p>\r\nFrench minutes have a few twists and turns that you may not expect. Check these out:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">To say 1 to 30 minutes past the hour, simply say the number of minutes after the hour, like this:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Il est deux heures dix.</b> (Literally, it is two hours ten, which is to say, it is 2:10.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Il est sept heures vingt-cinq.</b> (It is 7:25.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">For 15 minutes past the hour say, <b>et quart</b> (and a quarter). For example: <b>Il est une heure et quart. </b>(It’s a quarter past one.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">For 30 minutes past the hour, say <b>et demie </b>(and a half). For example: <b>Il est une heure et demie. </b>(It’s half past one.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">For 31 to 59 minutes past the hour, say the next hour <b>moins </b>(minus) the number of minutes, like this:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Il est quatre heures moins dix. </b>(Literally, four hours minus 10, or 3:50.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Il est huit heures moins vingt. </b>(Literally, eight hours minus 20, meaning 7:40.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">For a quarter until the hour, say <b>moins le quart </b>(minus the quarter). For example: <b>Il est trois heures moins le quart.</b> (It is a quarter until 3; meaning 2:45.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">To abbreviate a time in French, don’t use a colon between the hour and minutes like in English. Instead, use the letter <em>h </em>(for heure), like this: <b>8h10 </b>(8:10).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">French has specific words for noon and midnight: <b>midi</b> (noon) and <b>minuit</b> (midnight). Those two words are used without saying <b>heures.</b> For example: <b>Il est minuit. Tout le monde au lit! </b>(It’s midnight. Everybody to bed!)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">With the 12-hour clock, you may need to clarify whether it’s 8 a.m. or 8 p.m. It could make a big difference! French uses phrases to express the difference between morning (<b>le matin</b>), afternoon (<b>l’après-midi</b>), and evening/night (<b>le soir</b>).</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>du matin</b> (in the morning or a.m.)</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">For example: <b>Il part à six heures et demie du matin.</b> (He leaves at 6:30 a.m.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>de l’après-midi</b> (in the afternoon or p.m.)</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">For example: <b>En hiver il fait nuit à cinq heures de l’après-midi.</b> (In the winter, it’s dark at 5 p.m.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>du soir</b> (in the evening/at night or p.m.)</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">For example: <b>Ils dînent à sept heures du soir.</b> (They eat dinner at 7 p.m.)</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para Tip\">The line between afternoon and evening is not a very fixed one. It varies with the perception of the speaker, the seasons, even the weather.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nHere are a few expressions that can come in handy when telling time in French.\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>pile</b> (on the dot). For example:<b> Il mange à midi pile.</b> (He eats at noon on the dot.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>à</b> (at). For example: <b>Viens à trois heures.</b> (Come at 3.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>C’est à quelle heure? </b>(At what time is it?)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>vers</b> (around). For example: <b>Je passerai vers 9 heures.</b> (I will stop by around 9.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >How to express French time via the 24-hour clock</h2>\r\nIf you travel in France, you really may need this information! Using the 24-hour clock is really quite simple, because all you do is add. No more <b>moins le quart </b>or <b>et demie</b> and the like.\r\n\r\nAll you need is to keep in mind that the 24-hour clock begins at <b>zéro heure</b> (12 a.m.) and ends at <b>23.59</b> (11:59 p.m.), and you write a period between the two parts of the time instead of using an <em>h</em>. For example, <b>13.00</b> (<b>treize heures</b>) is 1 p.m., <b>14.00</b> (<b>quatorze heures</b>) is 2 p.m., <b>15.00</b> (<b>quinze heures</b>) is 3 p.m., and so on.\r\n\r\nAnd because it’s clear that all times after 12 (noon) are p.m., you have no need for <b>du matin, de l’après-midi,</b><b> </b>or <b>du soir</b> anymore.\r\n\r\nHere are some examples:\r\n<blockquote><b>Le film commence à 20.40 (vingt heures quarante).</b> (The movie begins at 8:40 p.m.)</blockquote>\r\n<blockquote><b>Le bureau est ouvert de 8.00 (huit heures) à 17.30 (dix-sept heures trente).</b> (The office is open from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.)</blockquote>\r\n<blockquote><b>Le déjeuner est servi à 12.15 (douze heures quinze) et le diner à 19.45 (dix-neuf-­heures quarante-cinq). </b>(Lunch is served at 12:15, and dinner at 7:45.)</blockquote>","description":"As you discuss days, months, and specific dates in French, you’re going to need tell time (<b>l’heure</b>) and probably with both the 12-hour and 24-hour clocks.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >How to express French time via the 12-hour clock</h2>\r\nTime is typically expressed based on a 12-hour clock. In French, you say the hour then the minutes, and it’s a little different from the way it’s done in English.\r\n\r\nTo tell a time on the hour in French, use<b> il est</b><b> </b>+ (number) + <b>heure(s).</b> For example: <b>il est deux heures</b> (it is two o’clock). <b>Note: </b>When it is one o’clock, say: <b>il est une heure</b> (it is one o’clock), using the feminine singular <b>une</b> instead of <b>un</b><b> </b>because the word <b>heure</b> (hour) is feminine.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">Always say the word <b>heure(s) </b>when telling time. Even if familiar language often skips <b>il est, </b>it never skips <b>heure(s).</b> For example: <b>quelle heure est-il?</b> (what time is it?) <b>Huit heures </b>(eight o’clock).</p>\r\nFrench minutes have a few twists and turns that you may not expect. Check these out:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">To say 1 to 30 minutes past the hour, simply say the number of minutes after the hour, like this:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Il est deux heures dix.</b> (Literally, it is two hours ten, which is to say, it is 2:10.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Il est sept heures vingt-cinq.</b> (It is 7:25.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">For 15 minutes past the hour say, <b>et quart</b> (and a quarter). For example: <b>Il est une heure et quart. </b>(It’s a quarter past one.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">For 30 minutes past the hour, say <b>et demie </b>(and a half). For example: <b>Il est une heure et demie. </b>(It’s half past one.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">For 31 to 59 minutes past the hour, say the next hour <b>moins </b>(minus) the number of minutes, like this:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Il est quatre heures moins dix. </b>(Literally, four hours minus 10, or 3:50.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Il est huit heures moins vingt. </b>(Literally, eight hours minus 20, meaning 7:40.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">For a quarter until the hour, say <b>moins le quart </b>(minus the quarter). For example: <b>Il est trois heures moins le quart.</b> (It is a quarter until 3; meaning 2:45.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">To abbreviate a time in French, don’t use a colon between the hour and minutes like in English. Instead, use the letter <em>h </em>(for heure), like this: <b>8h10 </b>(8:10).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">French has specific words for noon and midnight: <b>midi</b> (noon) and <b>minuit</b> (midnight). Those two words are used without saying <b>heures.</b> For example: <b>Il est minuit. Tout le monde au lit! </b>(It’s midnight. Everybody to bed!)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">With the 12-hour clock, you may need to clarify whether it’s 8 a.m. or 8 p.m. It could make a big difference! French uses phrases to express the difference between morning (<b>le matin</b>), afternoon (<b>l’après-midi</b>), and evening/night (<b>le soir</b>).</p>\r\n\r\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>du matin</b> (in the morning or a.m.)</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">For example: <b>Il part à six heures et demie du matin.</b> (He leaves at 6:30 a.m.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>de l’après-midi</b> (in the afternoon or p.m.)</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">For example: <b>En hiver il fait nuit à cinq heures de l’après-midi.</b> (In the winter, it’s dark at 5 p.m.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>du soir</b> (in the evening/at night or p.m.)</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">For example: <b>Ils dînent à sept heures du soir.</b> (They eat dinner at 7 p.m.)</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para Tip\">The line between afternoon and evening is not a very fixed one. It varies with the perception of the speaker, the seasons, even the weather.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nHere are a few expressions that can come in handy when telling time in French.\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>pile</b> (on the dot). For example:<b> Il mange à midi pile.</b> (He eats at noon on the dot.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>à</b> (at). For example: <b>Viens à trois heures.</b> (Come at 3.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>C’est à quelle heure? </b>(At what time is it?)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>vers</b> (around). For example: <b>Je passerai vers 9 heures.</b> (I will stop by around 9.)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >How to express French time via the 24-hour clock</h2>\r\nIf you travel in France, you really may need this information! Using the 24-hour clock is really quite simple, because all you do is add. No more <b>moins le quart </b>or <b>et demie</b> and the like.\r\n\r\nAll you need is to keep in mind that the 24-hour clock begins at <b>zéro heure</b> (12 a.m.) and ends at <b>23.59</b> (11:59 p.m.), and you write a period between the two parts of the time instead of using an <em>h</em>. For example, <b>13.00</b> (<b>treize heures</b>) is 1 p.m., <b>14.00</b> (<b>quatorze heures</b>) is 2 p.m., <b>15.00</b> (<b>quinze heures</b>) is 3 p.m., and so on.\r\n\r\nAnd because it’s clear that all times after 12 (noon) are p.m., you have no need for <b>du matin, de l’après-midi,</b><b> </b>or <b>du soir</b> anymore.\r\n\r\nHere are some examples:\r\n<blockquote><b>Le film commence à 20.40 (vingt heures quarante).</b> (The movie begins at 8:40 p.m.)</blockquote>\r\n<blockquote><b>Le bureau est ouvert de 8.00 (huit heures) à 17.30 (dix-sept heures trente).</b> (The office is open from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.)</blockquote>\r\n<blockquote><b>Le déjeuner est servi à 12.15 (douze heures quinze) et le diner à 19.45 (dix-neuf-­heures quarante-cinq). </b>(Lunch is served at 12:15, and dinner at 7:45.)</blockquote>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9721,"name":"Veronique Mazet","slug":"veronique-mazet","description":" <p><b>V&#233;ronique Mazet</b> has a doctorate in French from the University of Texas at Austin and is the author of two successful grammar books. She currently teaches French at Austin Community College in Austin, Texas.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9721"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33695,"title":"French","slug":"french","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"How to express French time via the 12-hour clock","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"How to express French time via the 24-hour clock","target":"#tab2"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":208001,"title":"French Grammar For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208001"}},{"articleId":168909,"title":"Putting Prepositions in French Sentences","slug":"putting-prepositions-in-french-sentences","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168909"}},{"articleId":168910,"title":"Checking Out the Conditional in French","slug":"checking-out-the-conditional-in-french","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168910"}},{"articleId":168911,"title":"Building Negative Sentences in French","slug":"building-negative-sentences-in-french","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168911"}},{"articleId":168904,"title":"Ten Common French Grammar Mistakes (and How to Avoid Them)","slug":"ten-common-french-grammar-mistakes-and-how-to-avoid-them","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168904"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208557,"title":"French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208557"}},{"articleId":208489,"title":"Intermediate French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"intermediate-french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208489"}},{"articleId":208461,"title":"French Verbs For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-verbs-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208461"}},{"articleId":208221,"title":"French All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208221"}},{"articleId":208001,"title":"French Grammar For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208001"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282216,"slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies","isbn":"9781118502518","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1118502515-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/french-grammar-for-dummies-cover-9781118502518-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"French Grammar For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9721\">Véronique Mazet</b> has a doctorate in French from the University of Texas at Austin and is the author of two successful grammar books. She currently teaches French at Austin Community College in Austin, Texas.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9721,"name":"Veronique Mazet","slug":"veronique-mazet","description":" <p><b>V&#233;ronique Mazet</b> has a doctorate in French from the University of Texas at Austin and is the author of two successful grammar books. She currently teaches French at Austin Community College in Austin, Texas.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9721"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;french&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118502518&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b03c81fa\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;french&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781118502518&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-63221b03c8bf8\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2022-09-09T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":166596},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T14:59:51+00:00","modifiedTime":"2022-09-14T20:57:01+00:00","timestamp":"2023-09-14T18:18:37+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Learning Languages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33689"},"slug":"learning-languages","categoryId":33689},{"name":"French","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"},"slug":"french","categoryId":33695}],"title":"How to Conjugate Regular French Verbs","strippedTitle":"how to conjugate regular french verbs","slug":"how-to-conjugate-regular-french-verbs","canonicalUrl":"","搜所搜素座舱seo":{"metaDescription":"In this article, you'll learn the patterns for conjugating regular French verbs, which includes the -er, -ir, and -re, verbs.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"To simplify things, French has classified regular verbs into three types, based on the ending of their infinitives. Think of all the things you can possibly do in one day. That’s also a lot of French verbs to conjugate.\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The largest group is the verbs with infinitives that end in <b>-er </b>(the <b>-er</b> verbs), like <b>parler</b> (<i>to speak</i>).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The second largest group is made up of the verbs with infinitives that end in <b>-ir</b> (the <b>-ir</b> verbs), like <b>finir</b> (<i>to finish</i>).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The third group consists of the <b>-re</b> ending verbs (the <b>-re</b> verbs), like <b>vendre</b> (<i>to sell</i>).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nEach type follows a pattern of conjugation for every tense.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Think of the infinitive as the family name of a verb: A family shares a common last name, but each individual has their own characteristics, right? Use the infinitive to recognize the verb type (<b>-er, -ir, </b>or <b>-re</b>) that allows you to find its conjugation pattern and also look up the verb in the dictionary.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >How to conjugate a regular -er verb</h2>\r\nMore than 80 percent of French verbs are <b>-er</b> verbs. It’s great for you, because after you know this group's pattern of conjugation in the present tense, you can pretty much conjugate 80 percent of French verbs. Doesn’t that sound great?\r\n\r\nTo conjugate a regular <b>-er</b> verb, drop the <b>-er</b> of the infinitive to get the stem. Then add the six present tense endings specific to <b>-er</b> verbs: <b>-e, -es, -e, -ons, -ez, -ent,</b><b> </b>and you’re done. Easy! The following table conjugates a regular <b>-er</b> verb:<b> aimer</b> (<i>to like</i>).\r\n<table>\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><b>j’aime</b></td>\r\n<td>nous <b>aimons</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>tu <b>aimes</b></td>\r\n<td>vous <b>aimez</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>il/elle/on <b>aime</b></td>\r\n<td>ils/elles <b>aiment</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n</tbody>\r\n</table>\r\n<p class=\"Warning\"><b>Aller</b> (<i>to go</i>)<i> </i>is a very common verb, and it looks like a regular <b>-er</b> verb. However, it is not. <b>Aller</b> is a very irregular verb.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >How to conjugate a regular -ir verb</h2>\r\nThe <b>-ir</b> verb group is the second most common verb type. To form the present tense of a regular <b>-ir </b>verb, drop the <b>-ir</b> of the infinitive to get the stem for the present tense conjugation. Then add the present tense endings specific to <b>-ir</b> verbs: <b>-is, -is, -it, -issons, -issez, -issent.</b> The following table conjugates a regular <b>-ir</b> verb: <b>finir </b>(<i>to finish</i>).\r\n<table>\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>je <b>finis</b></td>\r\n<td>nous <b>finissons</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>tu <b>finis</b></td>\r\n<td>vous <b>finissez</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>il/elle/on <b>finit</b></td>\r\n<td>ils/elles <b>finissent</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n</tbody>\r\n</table>\r\nNot all <b>-ir</b> verbs follow this pattern. So just use a little more caution when dealing with <b>-ir </b>ending verbs.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >How to conjugate a regular -re verb</h2>\r\nVerbs that end in <b>-re</b> are the third conjugation type. To form the present tense of an <b>-re</b> verb, drop the <b>-re</b> of the infinitive, like you do for <b>-er</b> and <b>-ir</b> verbs. When you do that, you’re left with the stem for the conjugation of the present tense, and you can add the present tense endings specific to <b>-re</b> verbs: <b>-s, -s,</b> nothing, <b>-ons, -ez, -ent.</b>\r\n\r\nThe following table conjugates a regular <b>-re</b> verb: <b>vendre</b> (<i>to sell</i>).\r\n<table>\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>je <b>vends</b></td>\r\n<td>nous <b>vendons</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>tu <b>vends</b></td>\r\n<td>vous <b>vendez</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>il/elle/on <b>vend</b></td>\r\n<td>ils/elles <b>vendent</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n</tbody>\r\n</table>","description":"To simplify things, French has classified regular verbs into three types, based on the ending of their infinitives. Think of all the things you can possibly do in one day. That’s also a lot of French verbs to conjugate.\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The largest group is the verbs with infinitives that end in <b>-er </b>(the <b>-er</b> verbs), like <b>parler</b> (<i>to speak</i>).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The second largest group is made up of the verbs with infinitives that end in <b>-ir</b> (the <b>-ir</b> verbs), like <b>finir</b> (<i>to finish</i>).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\">The third group consists of the <b>-re</b> ending verbs (the <b>-re</b> verbs), like <b>vendre</b> (<i>to sell</i>).</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nEach type follows a pattern of conjugation for every tense.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Think of the infinitive as the family name of a verb: A family shares a common last name, but each individual has their own characteristics, right? Use the infinitive to recognize the verb type (<b>-er, -ir, </b>or <b>-re</b>) that allows you to find its conjugation pattern and also look up the verb in the dictionary.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >How to conjugate a regular -er verb</h2>\r\nMore than 80 percent of French verbs are <b>-er</b> verbs. It’s great for you, because after you know this group's pattern of conjugation in the present tense, you can pretty much conjugate 80 percent of French verbs. Doesn’t that sound great?\r\n\r\nTo conjugate a regular <b>-er</b> verb, drop the <b>-er</b> of the infinitive to get the stem. Then add the six present tense endings specific to <b>-er</b> verbs: <b>-e, -es, -e, -ons, -ez, -ent,</b><b> </b>and you’re done. Easy! The following table conjugates a regular <b>-er</b> verb:<b> aimer</b> (<i>to like</i>).\r\n<table>\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><b>j’aime</b></td>\r\n<td>nous <b>aimons</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>tu <b>aimes</b></td>\r\n<td>vous <b>aimez</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>il/elle/on <b>aime</b></td>\r\n<td>ils/elles <b>aiment</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n</tbody>\r\n</table>\r\n<p class=\"Warning\"><b>Aller</b> (<i>to go</i>)<i> </i>is a very common verb, and it looks like a regular <b>-er</b> verb. However, it is not. <b>Aller</b> is a very irregular verb.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >How to conjugate a regular -ir verb</h2>\r\nThe <b>-ir</b> verb group is the second most common verb type. To form the present tense of a regular <b>-ir </b>verb, drop the <b>-ir</b> of the infinitive to get the stem for the present tense conjugation. Then add the present tense endings specific to <b>-ir</b> verbs: <b>-is, -is, -it, -issons, -issez, -issent.</b> The following table conjugates a regular <b>-ir</b> verb: <b>finir </b>(<i>to finish</i>).\r\n<table>\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>je <b>finis</b></td>\r\n<td>nous <b>finissons</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>tu <b>finis</b></td>\r\n<td>vous <b>finissez</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>il/elle/on <b>finit</b></td>\r\n<td>ils/elles <b>finissent</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n</tbody>\r\n</table>\r\nNot all <b>-ir</b> verbs follow this pattern. So just use a little more caution when dealing with <b>-ir </b>ending verbs.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >How to conjugate a regular -re verb</h2>\r\nVerbs that end in <b>-re</b> are the third conjugation type. To form the present tense of an <b>-re</b> verb, drop the <b>-re</b> of the infinitive, like you do for <b>-er</b> and <b>-ir</b> verbs. When you do that, you’re left with the stem for the conjugation of the present tense, and you can add the present tense endings specific to <b>-re</b> verbs: <b>-s, -s,</b> nothing, <b>-ons, -ez, -ent.</b>\r\n\r\nThe following table conjugates a regular <b>-re</b> verb: <b>vendre</b> (<i>to sell</i>).\r\n<table>\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>je <b>vends</b></td>\r\n<td>nous <b>vendons</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>tu <b>vends</b></td>\r\n<td>vous <b>vendez</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td>il/elle/on <b>vend</b></td>\r\n<td>ils/elles <b>vendent</b></td>\r\n</tr>\r\n</tbody>\r\n</table>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9721,"name":"Veronique Mazet","slug":"veronique-mazet","description":" <p><b>V&#233;ronique Mazet</b> has a doctorate in French from the University of Texas at Austin and is the author of two successful grammar books. She currently teaches French at Austin Community College in Austin, Texas.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9721"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33695,"title":"French","slug":"french","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33695"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"How to conjugate a regular -er verb","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"How to conjugate a regular -ir verb","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"How to conjugate a regular -re verb","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":208001,"title":"French Grammar For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208001"}},{"articleId":168909,"title":"Putting Prepositions in French Sentences","slug":"putting-prepositions-in-french-sentences","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168909"}},{"articleId":168910,"title":"Checking Out the Conditional in French","slug":"checking-out-the-conditional-in-french","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168910"}},{"articleId":168911,"title":"Building Negative Sentences in French","slug":"building-negative-sentences-in-french","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168911"}},{"articleId":168904,"title":"Ten Common French Grammar Mistakes (and How to Avoid Them)","slug":"ten-common-french-grammar-mistakes-and-how-to-avoid-them","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/168904"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208557,"title":"French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208557"}},{"articleId":208489,"title":"Intermediate French For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"intermediate-french-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208489"}},{"articleId":208461,"title":"French Verbs For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-verbs-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208461"}},{"articleId":208221,"title":"French All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208221"}},{"articleId":208001,"title":"French Grammar For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208001"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282216,"slug":"french-grammar-for-dummies","isbn":"9781118502518","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","french"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1118502515-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1118502515/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/french-grammar-for-dummies-cover-9781118502518-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"French Grammar For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9721\">Véronique Mazet</b> has a doctorate in French from the University of Texas at Austin and is the author of two successful grammar books. 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