chơi xổ số keno trực tuyến

{"appState":{"pageLoadApiCallsStatus":true},"categoryState":{"relatedCategories":{"headers":{"timestamp":"2025-03-04T08:01:10+00:00"},"categoryId":33711,"data":{"title":"Writing","slug":"writing","image":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Writing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"},"slug":"writing","categoryId":33711}],"parentCategory":{"categoryId":33687,"title":"Language & Language Arts","slug":"language-language-arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"}},"childCategories":[],"description":"What are you writing? Whether it's your doctoral dissertation or the great American novel, we can help you get organized, polish up your prose, and get the right kind of attention for your words.","relatedArticles":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles?category=33711&offset=0&size=5"},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":169,"bookCount":19},"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"}},"relatedCategoriesLoadedStatus":"success"},"listState":{"list":{"count":10,"total":169,"items":[{"headers":{"creationTime":"2024-08-07T20:49:07+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-31T14:25:04+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-31T15:01:12+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Writing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"},"slug":"writing","categoryId":33711}],"title":"How to Start a College Essay","strippedTitle":"how to start a college essay","slug":"how-to-start-a-college-essay","canonicalUrl":"","搜素发动机系统简化":{"metaDescription":"An engaging opening to your college essay offers you the opportunity to impress your professor and stand out among your peers. Learn how to craft one.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The essay is to college writing what books are to educated people, what professors are to college teaching, and what wireless is to technology — they’re inseparable. The essay has been a major part of students’ academic life for more than 15 centuries. With such a storied history, the essay requirement isn’t likely to disappear before you graduate, which is why it's important to know how to start an essay.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tldr\">Don't have time to read the entire article?\r\n<a href=\"#summary\" data-analytics-id=\"product-test-2\">Jump to the quick read summary.</a></p>\r\n\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_300190\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"630\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-300190\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/college-student-studying-laptop-adobeStock_602489503.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"630\" height=\"417\" /> ©Peopleimages.com / Adobe Stock[/caption]\r\n\r\nNews flash. Your professor, a human being afflicted with a lifetime addiction to reading, determines your essay grade. As much as you’ve been told about the importance of writing for your audience, your professors are the one member of your audience you need to please. And because professors are sophisticated readers, they value writing that contains a skillfully created opening and closing.\r\n\r\nEngaging openings and closings, the intersection of academic and professional writing, offer you the opportunity to impress your professor and stand out among your peers. When you undervalue the importance of an enticing opening and closing, you’re leaving points on the page. Here I focus on what you need to know about writing openings, including the first few sentences and the title.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">To learn how to write an excellent closing to your essay, and about all other aspects of college writing, check out my book <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/book/academics-the-arts/language-language-arts/writing/college-writing-for-dummies-294549/\"><em>College Writing For Dummies</em></a>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Standing out</h2>\r\nLet the gains begin. As a professor who read and graded tens of thousands of essays and research papers, I’m thrilled to see a thoughtful opening that interests me as a consumer of content. My grading experience tells me to anticipate an excellent grade and read the remainder of the essay to justify that grade.\r\n\r\nWhen you're thinking about how to start off an essay, remember that the purpose of your opening includes the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Engage your reader in the topic and establish the organizational structure of your essay.</li>\r\n \t<li>Convince your reader of the importance of your topic and raise reader questions about the topic.</li>\r\n \t<li>Clarify your position on the topic question, using language from the assignment sheet.</li>\r\n \t<li>Highlight your overall essay plan.</li>\r\n \t<li>Demonstrate your command of language.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe opening transports your reader from the symbolic representation of your topic to the specific promise of your thesis — the last sentence in your opening. The structure of the opening progresses from general to specific information, from the abstract hook to the concrete thesis. Your investment in a strong opening yields high returns on your essay grade.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">As you're thinking about how to start your essay introduction, avoid experimenting with a delayed thesis, such as positioning the thesis in the closing. Avoid this until you regularly write A-graded college essays.</p>\r\nWhen you read leisurely, focus on openings and closings that attract your attention. If you want to be nerdy about it, ask Siri to file them. And when you’re ready to write your openings and closings, consider re-engineering a favorite one you saved.\r\n\r\nWhile your opening provides background to place your topic within context, college essays usually require a background paragraph following the opening paragraph. Be sure all background content is related to the thesis, not merely to the topic.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Including an anecdote</h2>\r\nAmong the solid ways to start an essay is a go-to opening taught by many professors: the <em>anecdote.</em> It's brief personal experience story. You can use anecdotes in a wide variety of ways, such as:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Connect a different personal experience to each essay you’re assigned.</li>\r\n \t<li>Exercise your poetic license by writing an anecdote about an experience that happened to someone else.</li>\r\n \t<li>Write a fictional anecdote that appears believable if you’re feeling especially creative.</li>\r\n \t<li>Use one as a piece of evidence in the essay body. The more you use them, the better your skills at developing them.</li>\r\n \t<li>Use one as a style tool. Anecdotes are the gift that keep giving.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nFollowing, I focus on what to include when writing anecdotes and how you can capture your reader’s attention.\r\n<h3>What to include in an anecdote</h3>\r\nAnecdotes are scenes, not narratives with a beginning, middle, and ending. They range between five and six sentences within essays between 600 to 650 words. They aren’t the recount of an experience from beginning to end.\r\n\r\nStrategies for writing anecdotes include the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Name relevant people, places, and events.</li>\r\n \t<li>Identify relevant time references.</li>\r\n \t<li>Consider a twist or surprise ending.</li>\r\n \t<li>Add brief dialogue when appropriate.</li>\r\n \t<li>Brainstorm your anecdote similar to how you brainstorm your essay.</li>\r\n \t<li>Reference conclusions from your anecdote that apply to your essay’s thesis.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAnecdotes are successful only when the experience connects with the essay topic. For example, an anecdote that tells a story about never quitting in athletics can be applied to an essay about never quitting in a challenging course.\r\n<h3>Grabbing your reader’s attention</h3>\r\nSimilar to opening an essay, begin an anecdote with an attention-attracting first sentence. Following, are examples of language for beginning your anecdote and setting the scene:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>When I visited Alaska, I experienced the highlight of my travel experience — walking on a glacier.</li>\r\n \t<li>I will never forget the desperation on animals' faces when I volunteered at the center for abused animals.</li>\r\n \t<li>Some of the most memorable lessons I learned in middle school occurred outside the classroom on camping trips.</li>\r\n \t<li>I hide emotions well, but holding tears failed me when I recognized the name on the post.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nConsider this opening anecdote:\r\n\r\nI boarded the helicopter from the heliport in Juneau, Alaska — aware that one crashed in recent weeks — anticipating the experience of flying above an ice field, landing on the Mendenhall Glacier, and walking across frozen tundra, thousands of years old. I walked to the edge of crevasses, looking down hundreds of feet at the flow of blue glacier water. I witnessed the excitement of one of nature’s unique performances. But on the helicopter flight back to Juneau, nature offered one additional surprise that changed my comfort level with nature’s majesty.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Using additional openings strategies</h2>\r\nWhen you're thinking about how to start an introduction for an essay, consider these other opening strategies:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Series of questions:</strong> Many professors consider a one question opening a cliché strategy common to high school writing. But a series of questions raises the curiosity level and raises even more questions. Here’s a sample from my column reviewing <em>Choke</em> by Sian Beilock (Delco News Network): What’s the cause of high-performing students underperforming on a high-stakes standardized test such as the SAT and GRE (Graduate Record Examination)? What’s the cause of a professional athlete underperforming on a game-winning play or a pressure putt? Do underperforming students and athletes share common characteristics for their “choke”?</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>What if? picture this:</strong> Another opening is the hypothetical “What if?” which raises questions and curiosities. Here’s a sample on a topic that interests you: What if colleges accepted more responsibility for ensuring graduation for the students they accept? What if their accountability included partial refunds of tuition and student loans for students who drop out? What if colleges fulfilled the promises to students and their parents made during freshmen orientation?</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">In addition to the previous opening strategies, openings also include the importance of the topic, the approach to the assignment, your position on the topic, and the thesis.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Steer clear of these types of openings</h2>\r\nHere’s a look at openings as unappealing as a broken popsicle:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Previewing your intentions for the essay, such as what you plan to cover</li>\r\n \t<li>A dictionary or encyclopedia definition of the topic</li>\r\n \t<li>Restating the topic</li>\r\n \t<li>Presenting an overview of the topic</li>\r\n \t<li>An all-encompassing phrase such as: “Since the dawn of time …”</li>\r\n \t<li>Quotations that suddenly appear in text without context or follow up</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nWhen I read these openings as a professor, I thought no effort, no thought, and no good.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Focusing on the first sentences</h2>\r\nAre you surprised to hear that some professors will stereotype you as a student? Your professor’s assessment of your grade begins the first day of class with behaviors such as:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Arriving early and introducing yourself</li>\r\n \t<li>Sitting in the front row and assuming an academic position</li>\r\n \t<li>Actively participating in class discussions and taking notes</li>\r\n \t<li>Saying thank you on the way out of class</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nYour professor will also stereotype you by a strong opening of your essay, especially the first sentence.\r\n\r\nUnlike professional writers, inexperienced writers rarely prioritize first sentences and openings. Professional writers quickly learn that their most important sentence is the first because editors frequently buy or reject a piece of writing based on the reader connection of the first sentence. A lackluster title, first sentence, and opening won’t cost you money as a first-year student, but it can cost you a scoring opportunity.\r\n\r\nHere’s a look at a few first-sentence strategies that will engage your reader, impress your professor, and score the grade (you can easily develop these first-sentence strategies into opening strategies):\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Surprise information:</strong> Readers enjoy a surprise. When the first-sentence surprise raises curiosity and questions, you have the ingredients for an engaging opening. Here’s a sample: Sleep researchers studying mice observed that the brain’s synapses, message connectors, surprisingly decrease about 20 percent after a few hours’ sleep. But they also discovered that the reduction makes you smarter. The second sentence (<em>But they also …</em>) shows a sentence that transitions into the thesis. Chapter 6 details more information about thesis statements.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Expert quotations:</strong> Opening an essay with a quotation by an expert interests the most sophisticated readers, including your professor. Here’s an example: “Progress is made by trial and failure, the failures are generally a hundred times more numerous than the successes; yet they are usually left unchronicled,” said renowned chemist William Ramsey (1852–1916). Ramsey was referencing science, but his advice applies beyond science and into everyday life, including writing. The second sentence (<em>Ramsey was referencing …</em>) also shows a sentence that transitions into the thesis.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Essential content connection:</strong> What is the most emotional part of your essay? For example, if your essay’s about the college dropout rate, play the emotional card by opening with a sentence describing what a college degree means to you and your family. Here’s a sample: I dreamed of my college graduation since my first day of school, but I didn’t dream of its financial and emotional toll on my family.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p id=\"summary\" class=\"article-tips remember\">When your first sentence connects with your readers, you’re set up to deliver your second sentence and the remainder of your opening. Midway through your opening, your professor formulates a projection of your grade. Capitalize on the opportunity to impress your professor with a high-interest opening, and remember that good openings generate good grades.</p>\r\n\r\n<div class=\"summary-container\" data-testid=\"summarySection\">\r\n<div class=\"wrapper\">\r\n<div class=\"image-block\" data-testid=\"imageBlock\"></div>\r\n<div class=\"details-block\">\r\n<h2 id=\"tab6\" >Quick Read Summary</h2>\r\n<ul class=\"summary-list\">\r\n \t<li><p>The essay is an essential component of college writing, much like books are to educated individuals and professors are to teaching. It has been a vital part of academia for over 15 centuries, and it's crucial to understand how to start an essay effectively.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Your professor, as a dedicated reader, plays a pivotal role in determining your essay's grade. They appreciate well-crafted openings and closings, which set your work apart. Neglecting the importance of a compelling start means missing out on valuable points.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>An engaging opening serves multiple purposes: it draws in the reader, establishes the essay's structure, emphasizes the topic's significance, and clarifies your position while highlighting your overall essay plan. The opening guides the reader from the general topic to the specific thesis, a progression from the abstract to the concrete. Avoid experimenting with a delayed thesis placement until you're consistently writing high-quality essays.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>An effective strategy for essay openings is the use of anecdotes, brief personal stories that connect to the topic. Anecdotes should be concise, involving relevant people, places, events, time references, and possibly a twist or surprise ending. They should tie back to the essay's thesis.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>To captivate your reader, start with an attention-grabbing first sentence, such as an intriguing experience or a thought-provoking question. Other opening strategies include posing a series of questions or exploring hypothetical scenarios related to your topic.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Avoid unappealing openings, such as previews, dictionary definitions, restating the topic, or vague phrases like \"Since the dawn of time.\" Professors often perceive these as lacking effort and thought.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>In the academic world, first impressions matter. Your professor forms an initial impression of your work based on the essay's opening, particularly the first sentence. To engage your reader and secure a good grade, consider strategies like surprising information, expert quotations, or connecting with essential emotional content.</p></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p>In summary, mastering the art of essay openings is crucial for academic success. Impress your professor with a well-crafted start, as it can significantly impact your grade.</p>\r\n<p>Hungry for more? Go back and <a href=\"/article/academics-the-arts/language-language-arts/writing/how-to-start-a-college-essay-300146/\">read the article</a> or <a href=\"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119895030/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20\" class=\"amazon-btn\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">check out the book</a>.</p>\r\n\r\n</div>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>","description":"The essay is to college writing what books are to educated people, what professors are to college teaching, and what wireless is to technology — they’re inseparable. The essay has been a major part of students’ academic life for more than 15 centuries. With such a storied history, the essay requirement isn’t likely to disappear before you graduate, which is why it's important to know how to start an essay.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tldr\">Don't have time to read the entire article?\r\n<a href=\"#summary\" data-analytics-id=\"product-test-2\">Jump to the quick read summary.</a></p>\r\n\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_300190\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"630\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-300190\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/college-student-studying-laptop-adobeStock_602489503.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"630\" height=\"417\" /> ©Peopleimages.com / Adobe Stock[/caption]\r\n\r\nNews flash. Your professor, a human being afflicted with a lifetime addiction to reading, determines your essay grade. As much as you’ve been told about the importance of writing for your audience, your professors are the one member of your audience you need to please. And because professors are sophisticated readers, they value writing that contains a skillfully created opening and closing.\r\n\r\nEngaging openings and closings, the intersection of academic and professional writing, offer you the opportunity to impress your professor and stand out among your peers. When you undervalue the importance of an enticing opening and closing, you’re leaving points on the page. Here I focus on what you need to know about writing openings, including the first few sentences and the title.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">To learn how to write an excellent closing to your essay, and about all other aspects of college writing, check out my book <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/book/academics-the-arts/language-language-arts/writing/college-writing-for-dummies-294549/\"><em>College Writing For Dummies</em></a>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Standing out</h2>\r\nLet the gains begin. As a professor who read and graded tens of thousands of essays and research papers, I’m thrilled to see a thoughtful opening that interests me as a consumer of content. My grading experience tells me to anticipate an excellent grade and read the remainder of the essay to justify that grade.\r\n\r\nWhen you're thinking about how to start off an essay, remember that the purpose of your opening includes the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Engage your reader in the topic and establish the organizational structure of your essay.</li>\r\n \t<li>Convince your reader of the importance of your topic and raise reader questions about the topic.</li>\r\n \t<li>Clarify your position on the topic question, using language from the assignment sheet.</li>\r\n \t<li>Highlight your overall essay plan.</li>\r\n \t<li>Demonstrate your command of language.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe opening transports your reader from the symbolic representation of your topic to the specific promise of your thesis — the last sentence in your opening. The structure of the opening progresses from general to specific information, from the abstract hook to the concrete thesis. Your investment in a strong opening yields high returns on your essay grade.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">As you're thinking about how to start your essay introduction, avoid experimenting with a delayed thesis, such as positioning the thesis in the closing. Avoid this until you regularly write A-graded college essays.</p>\r\nWhen you read leisurely, focus on openings and closings that attract your attention. If you want to be nerdy about it, ask Siri to file them. And when you’re ready to write your openings and closings, consider re-engineering a favorite one you saved.\r\n\r\nWhile your opening provides background to place your topic within context, college essays usually require a background paragraph following the opening paragraph. Be sure all background content is related to the thesis, not merely to the topic.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Including an anecdote</h2>\r\nAmong the solid ways to start an essay is a go-to opening taught by many professors: the <em>anecdote.</em> It's brief personal experience story. You can use anecdotes in a wide variety of ways, such as:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Connect a different personal experience to each essay you’re assigned.</li>\r\n \t<li>Exercise your poetic license by writing an anecdote about an experience that happened to someone else.</li>\r\n \t<li>Write a fictional anecdote that appears believable if you’re feeling especially creative.</li>\r\n \t<li>Use one as a piece of evidence in the essay body. The more you use them, the better your skills at developing them.</li>\r\n \t<li>Use one as a style tool. Anecdotes are the gift that keep giving.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nFollowing, I focus on what to include when writing anecdotes and how you can capture your reader’s attention.\r\n<h3>What to include in an anecdote</h3>\r\nAnecdotes are scenes, not narratives with a beginning, middle, and ending. They range between five and six sentences within essays between 600 to 650 words. They aren’t the recount of an experience from beginning to end.\r\n\r\nStrategies for writing anecdotes include the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Name relevant people, places, and events.</li>\r\n \t<li>Identify relevant time references.</li>\r\n \t<li>Consider a twist or surprise ending.</li>\r\n \t<li>Add brief dialogue when appropriate.</li>\r\n \t<li>Brainstorm your anecdote similar to how you brainstorm your essay.</li>\r\n \t<li>Reference conclusions from your anecdote that apply to your essay’s thesis.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAnecdotes are successful only when the experience connects with the essay topic. For example, an anecdote that tells a story about never quitting in athletics can be applied to an essay about never quitting in a challenging course.\r\n<h3>Grabbing your reader’s attention</h3>\r\nSimilar to opening an essay, begin an anecdote with an attention-attracting first sentence. Following, are examples of language for beginning your anecdote and setting the scene:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>When I visited Alaska, I experienced the highlight of my travel experience — walking on a glacier.</li>\r\n \t<li>I will never forget the desperation on animals' faces when I volunteered at the center for abused animals.</li>\r\n \t<li>Some of the most memorable lessons I learned in middle school occurred outside the classroom on camping trips.</li>\r\n \t<li>I hide emotions well, but holding tears failed me when I recognized the name on the post.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nConsider this opening anecdote:\r\n\r\nI boarded the helicopter from the heliport in Juneau, Alaska — aware that one crashed in recent weeks — anticipating the experience of flying above an ice field, landing on the Mendenhall Glacier, and walking across frozen tundra, thousands of years old. I walked to the edge of crevasses, looking down hundreds of feet at the flow of blue glacier water. I witnessed the excitement of one of nature’s unique performances. But on the helicopter flight back to Juneau, nature offered one additional surprise that changed my comfort level with nature’s majesty.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Using additional openings strategies</h2>\r\nWhen you're thinking about how to start an introduction for an essay, consider these other opening strategies:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Series of questions:</strong> Many professors consider a one question opening a cliché strategy common to high school writing. But a series of questions raises the curiosity level and raises even more questions. Here’s a sample from my column reviewing <em>Choke</em> by Sian Beilock (Delco News Network): What’s the cause of high-performing students underperforming on a high-stakes standardized test such as the SAT and GRE (Graduate Record Examination)? What’s the cause of a professional athlete underperforming on a game-winning play or a pressure putt? Do underperforming students and athletes share common characteristics for their “choke”?</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>What if? picture this:</strong> Another opening is the hypothetical “What if?” which raises questions and curiosities. Here’s a sample on a topic that interests you: What if colleges accepted more responsibility for ensuring graduation for the students they accept? What if their accountability included partial refunds of tuition and student loans for students who drop out? What if colleges fulfilled the promises to students and their parents made during freshmen orientation?</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">In addition to the previous opening strategies, openings also include the importance of the topic, the approach to the assignment, your position on the topic, and the thesis.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Steer clear of these types of openings</h2>\r\nHere’s a look at openings as unappealing as a broken popsicle:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Previewing your intentions for the essay, such as what you plan to cover</li>\r\n \t<li>A dictionary or encyclopedia definition of the topic</li>\r\n \t<li>Restating the topic</li>\r\n \t<li>Presenting an overview of the topic</li>\r\n \t<li>An all-encompassing phrase such as: “Since the dawn of time …”</li>\r\n \t<li>Quotations that suddenly appear in text without context or follow up</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nWhen I read these openings as a professor, I thought no effort, no thought, and no good.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Focusing on the first sentences</h2>\r\nAre you surprised to hear that some professors will stereotype you as a student? Your professor’s assessment of your grade begins the first day of class with behaviors such as:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Arriving early and introducing yourself</li>\r\n \t<li>Sitting in the front row and assuming an academic position</li>\r\n \t<li>Actively participating in class discussions and taking notes</li>\r\n \t<li>Saying thank you on the way out of class</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nYour professor will also stereotype you by a strong opening of your essay, especially the first sentence.\r\n\r\nUnlike professional writers, inexperienced writers rarely prioritize first sentences and openings. Professional writers quickly learn that their most important sentence is the first because editors frequently buy or reject a piece of writing based on the reader connection of the first sentence. A lackluster title, first sentence, and opening won’t cost you money as a first-year student, but it can cost you a scoring opportunity.\r\n\r\nHere’s a look at a few first-sentence strategies that will engage your reader, impress your professor, and score the grade (you can easily develop these first-sentence strategies into opening strategies):\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Surprise information:</strong> Readers enjoy a surprise. When the first-sentence surprise raises curiosity and questions, you have the ingredients for an engaging opening. Here’s a sample: Sleep researchers studying mice observed that the brain’s synapses, message connectors, surprisingly decrease about 20 percent after a few hours’ sleep. But they also discovered that the reduction makes you smarter. The second sentence (<em>But they also …</em>) shows a sentence that transitions into the thesis. Chapter 6 details more information about thesis statements.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Expert quotations:</strong> Opening an essay with a quotation by an expert interests the most sophisticated readers, including your professor. Here’s an example: “Progress is made by trial and failure, the failures are generally a hundred times more numerous than the successes; yet they are usually left unchronicled,” said renowned chemist William Ramsey (1852–1916). Ramsey was referencing science, but his advice applies beyond science and into everyday life, including writing. The second sentence (<em>Ramsey was referencing …</em>) also shows a sentence that transitions into the thesis.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Essential content connection:</strong> What is the most emotional part of your essay? For example, if your essay’s about the college dropout rate, play the emotional card by opening with a sentence describing what a college degree means to you and your family. Here’s a sample: I dreamed of my college graduation since my first day of school, but I didn’t dream of its financial and emotional toll on my family.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p id=\"summary\" class=\"article-tips remember\">When your first sentence connects with your readers, you’re set up to deliver your second sentence and the remainder of your opening. Midway through your opening, your professor formulates a projection of your grade. Capitalize on the opportunity to impress your professor with a high-interest opening, and remember that good openings generate good grades.</p>\r\n\r\n<div class=\"summary-container\" data-testid=\"summarySection\">\r\n<div class=\"wrapper\">\r\n<div class=\"image-block\" data-testid=\"imageBlock\"></div>\r\n<div class=\"details-block\">\r\n<h2 id=\"tab6\" >Quick Read Summary</h2>\r\n<ul class=\"summary-list\">\r\n \t<li><p>The essay is an essential component of college writing, much like books are to educated individuals and professors are to teaching. It has been a vital part of academia for over 15 centuries, and it's crucial to understand how to start an essay effectively.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Your professor, as a dedicated reader, plays a pivotal role in determining your essay's grade. They appreciate well-crafted openings and closings, which set your work apart. Neglecting the importance of a compelling start means missing out on valuable points.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>An engaging opening serves multiple purposes: it draws in the reader, establishes the essay's structure, emphasizes the topic's significance, and clarifies your position while highlighting your overall essay plan. The opening guides the reader from the general topic to the specific thesis, a progression from the abstract to the concrete. Avoid experimenting with a delayed thesis placement until you're consistently writing high-quality essays.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>An effective strategy for essay openings is the use of anecdotes, brief personal stories that connect to the topic. Anecdotes should be concise, involving relevant people, places, events, time references, and possibly a twist or surprise ending. They should tie back to the essay's thesis.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>To captivate your reader, start with an attention-grabbing first sentence, such as an intriguing experience or a thought-provoking question. Other opening strategies include posing a series of questions or exploring hypothetical scenarios related to your topic.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Avoid unappealing openings, such as previews, dictionary definitions, restating the topic, or vague phrases like \"Since the dawn of time.\" Professors often perceive these as lacking effort and thought.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>In the academic world, first impressions matter. Your professor forms an initial impression of your work based on the essay's opening, particularly the first sentence. To engage your reader and secure a good grade, consider strategies like surprising information, expert quotations, or connecting with essential emotional content.</p></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p>In summary, mastering the art of essay openings is crucial for academic success. Impress your professor with a well-crafted start, as it can significantly impact your grade.</p>\r\n<p>Hungry for more? Go back and <a href=\"/article/academics-the-arts/language-language-arts/writing/how-to-start-a-college-essay-300146/\">read the article</a> or <a href=\"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119895030/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20\" class=\"amazon-btn\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">check out the book</a>.</p>\r\n\r\n</div>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":34539,"name":"Joe Giampalmi","slug":"joe-giampalmi","description":"","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/34539"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33711,"title":"Writing","slug":"writing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Standing out","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Including an anecdote","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Using additional openings strategies","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"Steer clear of these types of openings","target":"#tab4"},{"label":"Focusing on the first sentences","target":"#tab5"},{"label":"Quick Read Summary","target":"#tab6"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":299854,"title":"How to Succeed in Your College Writing Assignments","slug":"what-to-know-about-writing-in-college","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299854"}},{"articleId":294700,"title":"College Writing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"college-writing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/294700"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":300038,"title":"How to Evaluate Sources for a Research Paper","slug":"how-to-evaluate-sources-for-a-research-paper","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300038"}},{"articleId":299880,"title":"How to Write a College Research Paper","slug":"how-to-write-a-college-research-paper","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299880"}},{"articleId":299854,"title":"How to Succeed in Your College Writing Assignments","slug":"what-to-know-about-writing-in-college","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299854"}},{"articleId":299578,"title":"College Research Papers For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"college-research-papers-for-dummies","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299578"}},{"articleId":296370,"title":"The Many Benefits of Keeping a Journal","slug":"the-many-benefits-of-keeping-a-journal","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/296370"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":294549,"slug":"college-writing-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119895039","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119895030/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119895030/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119895030-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119895030/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119895030/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/college-writing-for-dummies-cover-9781119895039-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"College Writing For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"","authors":[{"authorId":34539,"name":"Joe Giampalmi","slug":"joe-giampalmi","description":"","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/34539"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;writing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119895039&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-654116b8356e8\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;writing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119895039&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-654116b83604f\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-08-07T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":300146},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2024-07-25T18:16:46+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-31T14:22:52+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-31T15:01:11+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Writing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"},"slug":"writing","categoryId":33711}],"title":"How to Write a College Research Paper","strippedTitle":"how to write a college research paper","slug":"how-to-write-a-college-research-paper","canonicalUrl":"","搜素发动机系统简化":{"metaDescription":"Learn how to formulate a research paper topic, write a thesis, and more from a college professor who has graded more than 10,000 research papers.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Research papers are like a six-hour energy drink for your grade. They’re usually weighted a higher point value than other assignments because they require more work. And writing a few successful research papers each semester helps to boost your grade point average — and your academic confidence.\r\n\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tldr\">Don't have time to read the entire article?\r\n<a href=\"#summary\" data-analytics-id=\"product-test-2\">Jump to the quick read summary.</a></p>\r\n\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_299886\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"630\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-299886\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/young-student-studying-library-adobeStock_168858105.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"630\" height=\"436\" /> ©BalanceFormCreative / Adobe Stock[/caption]\r\n\r\nIn addition to energizing your grade, here’s a look at the benefits of research papers and why they matter. Doing a research paper:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Broadens your knowledge base:</strong> New knowledge produces new questions to answer and new answers to questions. Research papers broaden and develop new interests.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Develops your scholarship:</strong> Research papers are the primary academic activity of scholars-in-training like you. More than any other academic assignment, research papers show your depth of understanding a topic.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Focuses your expertise:</strong> If your research writing reveals patterns of interests, such as an analysis of workplace issues, you may be developing an area of focus for career exploration. Trace your research topics from middle school through college and analyze what they reveal about your interests.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Develops problem-solving skills:</strong> Solving problems develops your problem-solving skills. Researching and writing are endless marathons of solving problems.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Expands career opportunities:</strong> Research papers and grad school are a given. A research background also qualifies you for many business careers, including entrepreneurialism. Each paper you write represents an opportunity to explore a new career.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Shows off your skills:</strong> Research papers demonstrate a variety of academic skills such as synthesizing, analyzing, organizing, summarizing, and paraphrasing. They also show skills such as creating research questions, developing an argument, and drawing conclusions.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nBefore the age of mass computers, research was like locating a lucky flake in a family-size box of cereal. The research process included locating the library’s one copy of the <em>Readers Guide to Periodical Literature</em>, searching your topic, recording periodical biographical information, submitting your source requests, and returning in a week to see if your requests could be fulfilled. Occasionally, an overzealous peer would irresponsibly rip out the periodical page you needed for research.\r\n\r\nGathering scholarly sources today lacks yesterday’s drama, but not yesterday’s importance. Sources may not be as significant to you as your phone and Wi-Fi, but without research skills to locate them, your academic life will crash like an overheated device.\r\n\r\nPut on your academic game face, alert your friends you’re taking a short sabbatical from social media, and commit yourself to the type of research that decreases the distance toward your college graduation goal.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">For more on how to start your college research paper, including formulating the all-important research question, creating an outline for a research paper, and gathering sources, check out my book <em><a href=\"//coursofppt.com/book/academics-the-arts/language-language-arts/writing/college-research-papers-for-dummies-299537/\">College Research Papers For Dummies</a></em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >What makes good research paper topics?</h2>\r\nLet this idea live rent free in your head: As a college professor who has graded more than 10,000 research papers, I assure you the most important grade-influencing decision you make — before you write word one in draft one — is identifying the topic. Innovative topics encourage your professor to reward your initiative with a grade of B or better, and it’s usually better.\r\n\r\nInnovative or outlier topics show your audience, and your professor, that your thinking surpasses the status quo and recognizes the importance of engaging writing and interesting content. Here are some examples of research paper topics that professors want to see more of and are willing to reward you for:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Culinary trends in Shakespeare’s plays: What they say about nutrition at the time</li>\r\n \t<li>Nineteenth century literary characters who would blow up Twitter — and today’s First Amendment implications</li>\r\n \t<li>Is a “good” dictatorship better than a bad democracy?</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThese topics combine unexpected elements: Shakespeare themes and nutrition, literary characters and the First Amendment — and arguing against the grain (a good dictatorship).\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Your initial topic, research questions, and thesis are called <em>working</em> because they usually require revising during background research and early writing of the assignment.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Professor-pleasing topic elements</h3>\r\nIn addition to novel and uncommon approaches, elements of professor-pleasing topics include the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Addresses assignment question:</strong> Professors design research assignments to allow you broad interpretations of the topic, but not limitless approaches. Professors expect your topic to fulfill the major purpose of the assignment, usually a form of argument.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Connects to course content:</strong> Connect your topic to course content by surveying your syllabus, reviewing tests, perusing notes and readings, and recalling class discussions. Identify major themes of the course and determine how one of them connects with the assignment.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Contains a debatable issue:</strong> Be certain that your topic has an element of disagreement. If you’re arguing that government should partially repay student loans, be sure to address reasons for disagreement.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Appeals to scholarly audience, including your professor:</strong> Connect your topic to the scholarly audience by analyzing it through an academic discipline, such as economics, health, psychology, sociology, and works of literature. Also consider integrating interests of your professor who represents that audience.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Identifies with your academic interest:</strong> Within the context of the assignment, choose a topic that will sustain your interest for three or four weeks. Consider a topic in your major field of study, a topic you want to explore, or a topic you think about and talk about.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Includes available research:</strong> An early red flag to abort your topic is lack of easily available research. If you can’t locate 15 to 20 sources on your first search, and if the reference librarian can’t direct you to topic sources, reboot your topic.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h3>How to find research paper topics</h3>\r\nTopic ideas surround your everyday academic life. Here are some resources for developing your research topic:\r\n\r\n<strong>Background reading:</strong> Read extensively and deeply on the topic. Read for who, what, when, where, how, and why. Read for ideas explained, implied, understated, and omitted.\r\n\r\n<strong>Your professor and other faculty:</strong> Talk with your professor about your planned approach to the topic and ask about other professors who may be a source for your research. You could also ask your professor for research paper examples that they consider high quality.\r\n\r\n<strong>Content from other courses:</strong> Professors value interdisciplinary thinking. Consider topics from another course that apply to the assignment.\r\n\r\n<strong>Library resources:</strong> A walk through the library or a scroll through the library website may generate topic ideas. Note displays and special interest exhibits and consider their connection to your topic.\r\n\r\n<strong>Campus and community issues:</strong> Consider campus and community issues that may connect to the assignment such as campus resources that can address community problems.\r\n\r\n<strong>Your phone’s AI:</strong> Ask your phone’s artificial intelligence for a suggested topic. The answer may surprise you.\r\n\r\n<strong>Social media:</strong> Is a topic trending on social media that’s academically applicable to the assignment? What topics are going viral?\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Identify a working topic within hours after analyzing your assignment and completing background reading. Avoid topic paralysis that bankrupts your time-management budget. Topic indecision is the enemy of a successful assignment.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Topic pitfalls to avoid</h3>\r\nYour goal as a student is to fulfill your professor’s expectations for the assignment, which includes researching scholarly evidence to argue a thesis. Avoid topics that present unnecessary obstacles for achieving those objectives, such as the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Too intricate:</strong> Steer clear of complex topics that exceed assignment length and increase difficulty of the assignment, such as the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Causes of declining GPAs among first-generation college students who commute and work full time, reducing available study time</li>\r\n \t<li>All about AI: Uses and abuses, position in the workplace, and potential to replace college writing</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Non-arguable:</strong> College students thrive on defending a belief. But when a belief lacks defense, they’re speechless — or wordless. Here are examples of topics that lack a logical argument:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and needs a cure.</li>\r\n \t<li>Colleges that have large endowments offer more resources to students than colleges with smaller endowments.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Values:</strong> College students feel strongly about their personal values (honesty, authenticity, compassion, service, and so forth). But research papers and most other college assignments (except in a course that studies values and ethics) aren’t the platform to defend them because they’re too difficult to argue with scholarly sources. Defend your values with how you live your life and argue them in dorm-room discussions — with the door closed tightly. Here are a couple of examples of a values topic difficult to write a research paper about:</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Too technical:</strong> Avoid topics that exceed the technical knowledge of your audience and require too much terminology to explain. For example:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Unfair advantages of high-tech swimwear in collegiate competitive swimming</li>\r\n \t<li>The energy efficiency of an HVAC system is directly related to its air exchange capabilities</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Personal obsessions:</strong> Avoid topics focused on personal obsessions you’re passionate about, such as politics, religion, and personal health. The emotional “you” will overpower the logical “you,” and your argument usually includes personal opinion rather than scholarly sources and a thesis based on logic.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">As soon as you begin accumulating information for your research project, back up files and back up your backup. Universities usually provide adequate student storage. Self-emailing represents another form of back up, in addition to an external hard drive backup. Avoid embarrassing yourself with the excuses almost all professors will decry: “I lost my files” or “My computer crashed.”</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >How to create a thesis statement</h2>\r\nYour most important sentence as an academic writer is the <em>thesis statement,</em> which states the position your paper will take and the direction it will develop. It’s like system settings on your devices, controlling every function of your research. If one part of your thesis malfunctions, your research assignment is toast.\r\n\r\nThink of the thesis like sentence ground zero. The development of every idea in the assignment flows through the thesis statement. In research writing, thesis statements are called <em>claim statements</em> because they claim or assert the argument of the paper.\r\n\r\nThesis statements require more thought than any other sentence you write. And when the thesis fails, the assignment fails. These sections explain the what and how of writing thesis statements and illustrate five steps for drafting a research paper thesis.\r\n<h3>Focus your thesis on a problem within the topic</h3>\r\nAfter analyzing the assignment and background reading, identify a problem related to the topic. Here’s an example on the topic of earning college degrees: Almost 60 percent of first-year college students neglect to graduate within six years.\r\n\r\nThe topic’s problems include millions of students who fail to achieve their college dream and the financial opportunities that accompany it and drop out of college with approximately $15,000 in student-loan debt.\r\n\r\nThe thesis offers a research-supported solution to the problem. When thesis statements neglect to focus on a problem, they lack reader drama and audience interest.\r\n<h3>How to write a thesis</h3>\r\nThe thesis identifies the purpose of the research paper and references the argument the paper will defend. Here’s an example of a thesis: The college admission process should include students’ demonstrating an understanding of at least three classic books.\r\n\r\nThe sample thesis asserts that students should demonstrate critical reading skills before admission to college. The thesis argues that the almost 60 percent college attrition rate six years after enrollment is attributed to poor reading skills. It will be supported by research showing that reading is a fundamental skill for success in college.\r\n\r\nAs a general rule, a thesis statement is completion of the sentence, such as: \"The purpose of this research paper is to argue that …\" Here’s a look at theses that complete that sentence:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The cost of producing electric vehicles often exceeds energy saved over lifetime operation of the vehicle.</li>\r\n \t<li>Music improves the benefits of exercising.</li>\r\n \t<li>Colleges bear some responsibility for the student loan crisis.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nHere’s a look at some successful thesis statements:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Responsibility for the student loan crisis should be shared by borrowers and colleges, especially the college admission process.</li>\r\n \t<li>Female characters in Shakespeare are representative of today’s “Me Too” movement.</li>\r\n \t<li>NIL (Name, Image, and Likeness) has had a positive influence on college academics.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe most common error writing thesis statements is writing sentences too narrow or too broad. Here are examples of those errors and their revisions:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Too narrow:</strong> College students’ academic performance is limited by eating unhealthy snacks.\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Revised:</strong> College students perform better academically when they exercise and develop good nutrition habits.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Too broad:</strong> Everyone should go to college.\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Revised:</strong> Everyone qualified and motivated should attend college, but many other routes leading to career success and financial stability are available, such as the trades and entrepreneurialism.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h3>Drafting a research paper thesis in five easy steps</h3>\r\nThesis statements preview the argument the research paper supports. Here are five easy-to-follow steps for writing a thesis statement for research papers:\r\n<ol>\r\n \t<li><strong>Determine your topic. </strong>After analyzing the assignment and reading background information, list the topic that interests you, which includes an argument and support by available research.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Identify a problem. </strong>Identify a major problem related to the topic that the research paper will address.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Interrogate your topic. </strong>Identify a variety of meanings of the problem by asking questions such as:\r\n<ol>\r\n \t<li>Whom or what is affected by the problem?</li>\r\n \t<li>Who benefits and who doesn’t?</li>\r\n \t<li>So what? and What if?</li>\r\n \t<li>What do the answers suggest about content needed to address the topic?</li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Write a research question. </strong>The question you write is answered by the thesis. Here’s an example of a research question: How does NIL affect college athletes?</li>\r\n \t<li id=\"summary\"><strong>Convert the question into a position statement. </strong>A thesis statement takes an arguable position that offers a solution to the problem, such as: NIL provides college athletes with the same social media financial opportunities as non-athlete students.</li>\r\n</ol>\r\n<div class=\"summary-container\" data-testid=\"summarySection\">\r\n<div class=\"wrapper\">\r\n<div class=\"image-block\" data-testid=\"imageBlock\"></div>\r\n<div class=\"details-block\">\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Quick Read Summary</h2>\r\n<ul class=\"summary-list\">\r\n \t<li><p>Research papers are essential in academia, often carrying significant weight in your overall grade. They require more effort than other assignments but offer various benefits, including broadening your knowledge base, developing scholarship, focusing your expertise, and enhancing problem-solving skills. Additionally, they can open up career opportunities and showcase your academic skills.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Choosing a good research paper topic is crucial. Innovative and unique topics impress your professors and set you up for a higher grade. Topics that challenge the status quo and offer fresh perspectives are highly regarded. For instance, consider topics like \"Culinary trends in Shakespeare's plays: What they say about nutrition at the time\" or \"Is a 'good' dictatorship better than a bad democracy?\" These unexpected combinations and unconventional approaches can make your paper stand out.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>When selecting a topic, ensure it aligns with the assignment's purpose, connects to course content, contains a debatable issue, appeals to a scholarly audience (including your professor), relates to your academic interest, and has ample available research sources.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>To find research paper topics, explore resources such as background reading, consult your professors and other faculty, consider content from other courses, explore library resources, and even use AI and social media trends for inspiration. Don't get stuck in topic indecision; it can hinder your progress.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Avoid topic pitfalls like overly intricate subjects, non-arguable topics, issues based on personal values, extremely technical subjects, and personal obsessions. These topics can complicate your research and hinder your ability to argue your thesis effectively.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Crafting a strong thesis statement is crucial for your research paper. It serves as the backbone of your paper, guiding its development. Start by identifying a problem related to your topic and then write a research question. Convert this question into a clear and arguable position statement. Your thesis should be focused on a problem, supported by research, and offer a solution.</p></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p>In summary, research papers are instrumental in academic success, but choosing the right topic and crafting a compelling thesis statement are key factors in ensuring a successful paper.</p>\r\n<p>Hungry for more? Go back and <a href=\"/article/academics-the-arts/language-language-arts/writing/how-to-write-a-college-research-paper-299880/\">read the article</a> or <a href=\"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1394191103/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20\" class=\"amazon-btn\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">check out the book</a>.</p>\r\n\r\n</div>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>","description":"Research papers are like a six-hour energy drink for your grade. They’re usually weighted a higher point value than other assignments because they require more work. And writing a few successful research papers each semester helps to boost your grade point average — and your academic confidence.\r\n\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tldr\">Don't have time to read the entire article?\r\n<a href=\"#summary\" data-analytics-id=\"product-test-2\">Jump to the quick read summary.</a></p>\r\n\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_299886\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"630\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-299886\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/young-student-studying-library-adobeStock_168858105.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"630\" height=\"436\" /> ©BalanceFormCreative / Adobe Stock[/caption]\r\n\r\nIn addition to energizing your grade, here’s a look at the benefits of research papers and why they matter. Doing a research paper:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Broadens your knowledge base:</strong> New knowledge produces new questions to answer and new answers to questions. Research papers broaden and develop new interests.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Develops your scholarship:</strong> Research papers are the primary academic activity of scholars-in-training like you. More than any other academic assignment, research papers show your depth of understanding a topic.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Focuses your expertise:</strong> If your research writing reveals patterns of interests, such as an analysis of workplace issues, you may be developing an area of focus for career exploration. Trace your research topics from middle school through college and analyze what they reveal about your interests.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Develops problem-solving skills:</strong> Solving problems develops your problem-solving skills. Researching and writing are endless marathons of solving problems.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Expands career opportunities:</strong> Research papers and grad school are a given. A research background also qualifies you for many business careers, including entrepreneurialism. Each paper you write represents an opportunity to explore a new career.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Shows off your skills:</strong> Research papers demonstrate a variety of academic skills such as synthesizing, analyzing, organizing, summarizing, and paraphrasing. They also show skills such as creating research questions, developing an argument, and drawing conclusions.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nBefore the age of mass computers, research was like locating a lucky flake in a family-size box of cereal. The research process included locating the library’s one copy of the <em>Readers Guide to Periodical Literature</em>, searching your topic, recording periodical biographical information, submitting your source requests, and returning in a week to see if your requests could be fulfilled. Occasionally, an overzealous peer would irresponsibly rip out the periodical page you needed for research.\r\n\r\nGathering scholarly sources today lacks yesterday’s drama, but not yesterday’s importance. Sources may not be as significant to you as your phone and Wi-Fi, but without research skills to locate them, your academic life will crash like an overheated device.\r\n\r\nPut on your academic game face, alert your friends you’re taking a short sabbatical from social media, and commit yourself to the type of research that decreases the distance toward your college graduation goal.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">For more on how to start your college research paper, including formulating the all-important research question, creating an outline for a research paper, and gathering sources, check out my book <em><a href=\"//coursofppt.com/book/academics-the-arts/language-language-arts/writing/college-research-papers-for-dummies-299537/\">College Research Papers For Dummies</a></em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >What makes good research paper topics?</h2>\r\nLet this idea live rent free in your head: As a college professor who has graded more than 10,000 research papers, I assure you the most important grade-influencing decision you make — before you write word one in draft one — is identifying the topic. Innovative topics encourage your professor to reward your initiative with a grade of B or better, and it’s usually better.\r\n\r\nInnovative or outlier topics show your audience, and your professor, that your thinking surpasses the status quo and recognizes the importance of engaging writing and interesting content. Here are some examples of research paper topics that professors want to see more of and are willing to reward you for:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Culinary trends in Shakespeare’s plays: What they say about nutrition at the time</li>\r\n \t<li>Nineteenth century literary characters who would blow up Twitter — and today’s First Amendment implications</li>\r\n \t<li>Is a “good” dictatorship better than a bad democracy?</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThese topics combine unexpected elements: Shakespeare themes and nutrition, literary characters and the First Amendment — and arguing against the grain (a good dictatorship).\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Your initial topic, research questions, and thesis are called <em>working</em> because they usually require revising during background research and early writing of the assignment.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Professor-pleasing topic elements</h3>\r\nIn addition to novel and uncommon approaches, elements of professor-pleasing topics include the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Addresses assignment question:</strong> Professors design research assignments to allow you broad interpretations of the topic, but not limitless approaches. Professors expect your topic to fulfill the major purpose of the assignment, usually a form of argument.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Connects to course content:</strong> Connect your topic to course content by surveying your syllabus, reviewing tests, perusing notes and readings, and recalling class discussions. Identify major themes of the course and determine how one of them connects with the assignment.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Contains a debatable issue:</strong> Be certain that your topic has an element of disagreement. If you’re arguing that government should partially repay student loans, be sure to address reasons for disagreement.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Appeals to scholarly audience, including your professor:</strong> Connect your topic to the scholarly audience by analyzing it through an academic discipline, such as economics, health, psychology, sociology, and works of literature. Also consider integrating interests of your professor who represents that audience.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Identifies with your academic interest:</strong> Within the context of the assignment, choose a topic that will sustain your interest for three or four weeks. Consider a topic in your major field of study, a topic you want to explore, or a topic you think about and talk about.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Includes available research:</strong> An early red flag to abort your topic is lack of easily available research. If you can’t locate 15 to 20 sources on your first search, and if the reference librarian can’t direct you to topic sources, reboot your topic.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h3>How to find research paper topics</h3>\r\nTopic ideas surround your everyday academic life. Here are some resources for developing your research topic:\r\n\r\n<strong>Background reading:</strong> Read extensively and deeply on the topic. Read for who, what, when, where, how, and why. Read for ideas explained, implied, understated, and omitted.\r\n\r\n<strong>Your professor and other faculty:</strong> Talk with your professor about your planned approach to the topic and ask about other professors who may be a source for your research. You could also ask your professor for research paper examples that they consider high quality.\r\n\r\n<strong>Content from other courses:</strong> Professors value interdisciplinary thinking. Consider topics from another course that apply to the assignment.\r\n\r\n<strong>Library resources:</strong> A walk through the library or a scroll through the library website may generate topic ideas. Note displays and special interest exhibits and consider their connection to your topic.\r\n\r\n<strong>Campus and community issues:</strong> Consider campus and community issues that may connect to the assignment such as campus resources that can address community problems.\r\n\r\n<strong>Your phone’s AI:</strong> Ask your phone’s artificial intelligence for a suggested topic. The answer may surprise you.\r\n\r\n<strong>Social media:</strong> Is a topic trending on social media that’s academically applicable to the assignment? What topics are going viral?\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Identify a working topic within hours after analyzing your assignment and completing background reading. Avoid topic paralysis that bankrupts your time-management budget. Topic indecision is the enemy of a successful assignment.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Topic pitfalls to avoid</h3>\r\nYour goal as a student is to fulfill your professor’s expectations for the assignment, which includes researching scholarly evidence to argue a thesis. Avoid topics that present unnecessary obstacles for achieving those objectives, such as the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Too intricate:</strong> Steer clear of complex topics that exceed assignment length and increase difficulty of the assignment, such as the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Causes of declining GPAs among first-generation college students who commute and work full time, reducing available study time</li>\r\n \t<li>All about AI: Uses and abuses, position in the workplace, and potential to replace college writing</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Non-arguable:</strong> College students thrive on defending a belief. But when a belief lacks defense, they’re speechless — or wordless. Here are examples of topics that lack a logical argument:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and needs a cure.</li>\r\n \t<li>Colleges that have large endowments offer more resources to students than colleges with smaller endowments.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Values:</strong> College students feel strongly about their personal values (honesty, authenticity, compassion, service, and so forth). But research papers and most other college assignments (except in a course that studies values and ethics) aren’t the platform to defend them because they’re too difficult to argue with scholarly sources. Defend your values with how you live your life and argue them in dorm-room discussions — with the door closed tightly. Here are a couple of examples of a values topic difficult to write a research paper about:</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Too technical:</strong> Avoid topics that exceed the technical knowledge of your audience and require too much terminology to explain. For example:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Unfair advantages of high-tech swimwear in collegiate competitive swimming</li>\r\n \t<li>The energy efficiency of an HVAC system is directly related to its air exchange capabilities</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Personal obsessions:</strong> Avoid topics focused on personal obsessions you’re passionate about, such as politics, religion, and personal health. The emotional “you” will overpower the logical “you,” and your argument usually includes personal opinion rather than scholarly sources and a thesis based on logic.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">As soon as you begin accumulating information for your research project, back up files and back up your backup. Universities usually provide adequate student storage. Self-emailing represents another form of back up, in addition to an external hard drive backup. Avoid embarrassing yourself with the excuses almost all professors will decry: “I lost my files” or “My computer crashed.”</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >How to create a thesis statement</h2>\r\nYour most important sentence as an academic writer is the <em>thesis statement,</em> which states the position your paper will take and the direction it will develop. It’s like system settings on your devices, controlling every function of your research. If one part of your thesis malfunctions, your research assignment is toast.\r\n\r\nThink of the thesis like sentence ground zero. The development of every idea in the assignment flows through the thesis statement. In research writing, thesis statements are called <em>claim statements</em> because they claim or assert the argument of the paper.\r\n\r\nThesis statements require more thought than any other sentence you write. And when the thesis fails, the assignment fails. These sections explain the what and how of writing thesis statements and illustrate five steps for drafting a research paper thesis.\r\n<h3>Focus your thesis on a problem within the topic</h3>\r\nAfter analyzing the assignment and background reading, identify a problem related to the topic. Here’s an example on the topic of earning college degrees: Almost 60 percent of first-year college students neglect to graduate within six years.\r\n\r\nThe topic’s problems include millions of students who fail to achieve their college dream and the financial opportunities that accompany it and drop out of college with approximately $15,000 in student-loan debt.\r\n\r\nThe thesis offers a research-supported solution to the problem. When thesis statements neglect to focus on a problem, they lack reader drama and audience interest.\r\n<h3>How to write a thesis</h3>\r\nThe thesis identifies the purpose of the research paper and references the argument the paper will defend. Here’s an example of a thesis: The college admission process should include students’ demonstrating an understanding of at least three classic books.\r\n\r\nThe sample thesis asserts that students should demonstrate critical reading skills before admission to college. The thesis argues that the almost 60 percent college attrition rate six years after enrollment is attributed to poor reading skills. It will be supported by research showing that reading is a fundamental skill for success in college.\r\n\r\nAs a general rule, a thesis statement is completion of the sentence, such as: \"The purpose of this research paper is to argue that …\" Here’s a look at theses that complete that sentence:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The cost of producing electric vehicles often exceeds energy saved over lifetime operation of the vehicle.</li>\r\n \t<li>Music improves the benefits of exercising.</li>\r\n \t<li>Colleges bear some responsibility for the student loan crisis.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nHere’s a look at some successful thesis statements:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Responsibility for the student loan crisis should be shared by borrowers and colleges, especially the college admission process.</li>\r\n \t<li>Female characters in Shakespeare are representative of today’s “Me Too” movement.</li>\r\n \t<li>NIL (Name, Image, and Likeness) has had a positive influence on college academics.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe most common error writing thesis statements is writing sentences too narrow or too broad. Here are examples of those errors and their revisions:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Too narrow:</strong> College students’ academic performance is limited by eating unhealthy snacks.\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Revised:</strong> College students perform better academically when they exercise and develop good nutrition habits.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Too broad:</strong> Everyone should go to college.\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Revised:</strong> Everyone qualified and motivated should attend college, but many other routes leading to career success and financial stability are available, such as the trades and entrepreneurialism.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h3>Drafting a research paper thesis in five easy steps</h3>\r\nThesis statements preview the argument the research paper supports. Here are five easy-to-follow steps for writing a thesis statement for research papers:\r\n<ol>\r\n \t<li><strong>Determine your topic. </strong>After analyzing the assignment and reading background information, list the topic that interests you, which includes an argument and support by available research.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Identify a problem. </strong>Identify a major problem related to the topic that the research paper will address.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Interrogate your topic. </strong>Identify a variety of meanings of the problem by asking questions such as:\r\n<ol>\r\n \t<li>Whom or what is affected by the problem?</li>\r\n \t<li>Who benefits and who doesn’t?</li>\r\n \t<li>So what? and What if?</li>\r\n \t<li>What do the answers suggest about content needed to address the topic?</li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Write a research question. </strong>The question you write is answered by the thesis. Here’s an example of a research question: How does NIL affect college athletes?</li>\r\n \t<li id=\"summary\"><strong>Convert the question into a position statement. </strong>A thesis statement takes an arguable position that offers a solution to the problem, such as: NIL provides college athletes with the same social media financial opportunities as non-athlete students.</li>\r\n</ol>\r\n<div class=\"summary-container\" data-testid=\"summarySection\">\r\n<div class=\"wrapper\">\r\n<div class=\"image-block\" data-testid=\"imageBlock\"></div>\r\n<div class=\"details-block\">\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Quick Read Summary</h2>\r\n<ul class=\"summary-list\">\r\n \t<li><p>Research papers are essential in academia, often carrying significant weight in your overall grade. They require more effort than other assignments but offer various benefits, including broadening your knowledge base, developing scholarship, focusing your expertise, and enhancing problem-solving skills. Additionally, they can open up career opportunities and showcase your academic skills.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Choosing a good research paper topic is crucial. Innovative and unique topics impress your professors and set you up for a higher grade. Topics that challenge the status quo and offer fresh perspectives are highly regarded. For instance, consider topics like \"Culinary trends in Shakespeare's plays: What they say about nutrition at the time\" or \"Is a 'good' dictatorship better than a bad democracy?\" These unexpected combinations and unconventional approaches can make your paper stand out.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>When selecting a topic, ensure it aligns with the assignment's purpose, connects to course content, contains a debatable issue, appeals to a scholarly audience (including your professor), relates to your academic interest, and has ample available research sources.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>To find research paper topics, explore resources such as background reading, consult your professors and other faculty, consider content from other courses, explore library resources, and even use AI and social media trends for inspiration. Don't get stuck in topic indecision; it can hinder your progress.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Avoid topic pitfalls like overly intricate subjects, non-arguable topics, issues based on personal values, extremely technical subjects, and personal obsessions. These topics can complicate your research and hinder your ability to argue your thesis effectively.</p></li>\r\n \t<li><p>Crafting a strong thesis statement is crucial for your research paper. It serves as the backbone of your paper, guiding its development. Start by identifying a problem related to your topic and then write a research question. Convert this question into a clear and arguable position statement. Your thesis should be focused on a problem, supported by research, and offer a solution.</p></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p>In summary, research papers are instrumental in academic success, but choosing the right topic and crafting a compelling thesis statement are key factors in ensuring a successful paper.</p>\r\n<p>Hungry for more? Go back and <a href=\"/article/academics-the-arts/language-language-arts/writing/how-to-write-a-college-research-paper-299880/\">read the article</a> or <a href=\"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1394191103/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20\" class=\"amazon-btn\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">check out the book</a>.</p>\r\n\r\n</div>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>","blurb":"","authors":[],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33711,"title":"Writing","slug":"writing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"What makes good research paper topics?","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"How to create a thesis statement","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Quick Read Summary","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":299578,"title":"College Research Papers For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"college-research-papers-for-dummies","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299578"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":300146,"title":"How to Start a College Essay","slug":"how-to-start-a-college-essay","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300146"}},{"articleId":300038,"title":"How to Evaluate Sources for a Research Paper","slug":"how-to-evaluate-sources-for-a-research-paper","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300038"}},{"articleId":299854,"title":"How to Succeed in Your College Writing Assignments","slug":"what-to-know-about-writing-in-college","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299854"}},{"articleId":299578,"title":"College Research Papers For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"college-research-papers-for-dummies","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299578"}},{"articleId":296370,"title":"The Many Benefits of Keeping a Journal","slug":"the-many-benefits-of-keeping-a-journal","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/296370"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":299537,"slug":"college-research-papers-for-dummies","isbn":"9781394191109","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1394191103/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1394191103/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1394191103-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1394191103/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1394191103/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/college-research-papers-for-dummies-9781394191109-207x255.jpg","width":207,"height":255},"title":"College Research Papers For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b><b data-author-id=\"8977\">Geraldine Woods</b></b> is the author of more than 10 Dummies titles, including <i>English Grammar For Dummies</i>. She is a hugely experienced educator with a gift for helping students realize their potential and come to grips with even the hardest subjects. Her friendly style and good humor make learning easy.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":8977,"name":"Geraldine Woods","slug":"geraldine-woods","description":" <p><b>Geraldine Woods</b> is the author of more than 10 Dummies titles, including <i>English Grammar For Dummies</i>. She is a hugely experienced educator with a gift for helping students realize their potential and come to grips with even the hardest subjects. Her friendly style and good humor make learning easy. 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Whether you’re an aspiring writer or just new to the genre, you’ll find practical information and tips here to help you along your writing journey.","description":"Romance is a top-selling fiction genre that includes historical and contemporary romance, paranormal and suspenseful romance, and more. 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","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9390"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;writing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394196661&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64f8e88e99277\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;writing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394196661&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64f8e88e99c40\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":194566,"title":"Before You Begin Your Creative Writing","slug":"before-you-begin-your-creative-writing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194566"}},{"articleId":194555,"title":"How to Generate Creative Writing Ideas","slug":"how-to-generate-creative-writing-ideas","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194555"}},{"articleId":194554,"title":"Writing Your First Draft","slug":"writing-your-first-draft","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194554"}},{"articleId":194565,"title":"Rewriting and Editing Your Creative Writing Project","slug":"rewriting-and-editing-your-creative-writing-project","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194565"}},{"articleId":194550,"title":"Ways to Develop and Improve Your Creative Writing","slug":"ways-to-develop-and-improve-your-creative-writing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194550"}}],"content":[{"title":"Gather your creative writing tools","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Always be prepared! Here’s a checklist of useful writing aids to have with you as you begin to write – just don’t forget the tea and coffee!</p>\n<ul>\n<li>A desk or other writing space and a comfortable chair</li>\n<li>If you prefer to write longhand:\n<ul>\n<li>A good notebook</li>\n<li>Your favorite pen</li>\n<li>A dictionary and thesaurus</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li>If you prefer to create electronically:\n<ul>\n<li>A computer, laptop, or tablet</li>\n<li>A printer (or access to one)</li>\n<li>A suitable notes app on your cellphone</li>\n<li>Software that provides grammar and spellcheck capabilities</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"How to generate creative writing ideas","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Writer’s block affects all writers from time to time. If you feel a bit stuck for inspiration, try these techniques to get your creative juices flowing:</p>\n<ul>\n<li class=\"Bullet\">Find an image (postcard, photograph, painting) depicting two or more people and write a story about them. Who are these characters? What might they be thinking?</li>\n<li class=\"Bullet\">Look at any object and write about it – where does it come from, who does it belong to, what memories does it trigger, who might want it and why?</li>\n<li class=\"Bullet\">Read local news for unusual and interesting stories and develop them as fiction. Take the basic idea but set the story in a different time and place with your own characters.</li>\n<li class=\"Bullet\">Listen to conversations on the bus, in a coffee shop, or at the supermarket. Jot down a particular exchange and carry it on, seeing where the characters lead you.</li>\n<li class=\"Bullet\">Pick up a book you really like and open it at a random page. Pick a sentence you like and write it down, and then carry on writing your own story from here, using your own characters and setting.</li>\n<li class=\"Bullet\">Pick an emotion and create a story around it complete with characters who are feeling that emotion. Pick another emotion and carry on writing. Make the characters move from the first emotion to the second – from hope to fear, from hatred to love.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Writing a solid first draft","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Writing a first draft of your creative project – whether a novel, short story, poem, or play – can be a bit daunting. Follow these handy hints to help you organize your thoughts and manage your time:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Don’t worry about a great opening line yet. Simply start writing wherever you like. After you know where your story is going, you can go back and rewrite the beginning.</li>\n<li>Keep the flow going in the early stages — keep writing without stopping, going back, re-reading, or changing what you’ve written. Don’t block yourself by starting to edit before you’ve got a good chunk written.</li>\n<li>Remember to show not tell — think about how to dramatize what you’re writing about and create visual images.</li>\n<li>If you become stuck on a particular passage, start somewhere else or write a different scene. You’ll soon get going again!</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Rewriting and editing your creative writing project","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Rewriting and editing helps to tighten up your work. But it can be difficult — what to chop and when to stop may not be clear, and you may change your mind more than once during the process.</p>\n<p>Ask yourself whether you need to take out:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Unnecessary information and explanation</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Passages of dialogue that go on too long</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Clunky descriptions that give too much detail</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Clumsy images that don’t really work</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Too many adjectives and adverbs</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>You may need to add or expand:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Something you know but have forgotten to tell the reader; perhaps the age of the main character</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">More specific descriptive information that shows instead of tells; instead of describing a man as &#8220;old,&#8221; describe his white hair, slow gait and mottled hands</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Dialogue of what the characters actually say, rather than summaries</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Material to add interest or create suspense</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">A better opening or closing line</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>You may need to move:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Dramatic sections to make a stronger opening</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Early information to where the reader really needs to know it</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Essential information nearer the beginning of the book</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Descriptive passages to add tension and suspense to incidents</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Words, phrases and sentences to make a better rhythm</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p>In your final edit:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Check for grammar, punctuation and spelling mistakes</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Ensure you have no continuity errors</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Pay particular attention to the first and last lines of any section or scene</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Smooth out any awkward words and phrases</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\">Clarify anything that isn’t clear</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Ways to develop and improve your creative writing","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Here are some top tips for developing your creative writing. No writing is ever a finished product — there are always ways to improve and refine your style. Here are several things you can do:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Take a course on creative writing techniques and get constructive feedback on your work from a tutor and other students.</li>\n<li>Join a writers’ circle to get support, encouragement, and feedback from other writers.</li>\n<li>Find a good library and use it.</li>\n<li>Read and re-read good writing — books that have been successful or stood the test of time.</li>\n<li>Attend book festivals, readings, and bookshop events to see what published authors say, meet other writers, and contact book industry professionals.</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-09-06T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":209313},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2024-08-02T20:57:07+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-08-04T13:39:24+00:00","timestamp":"2024-08-04T15:01:04+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Writing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"},"slug":"writing","categoryId":33711}],"title":"How to Evaluate Sources for a Research Paper","strippedTitle":"how to evaluate sources for a research paper","slug":"how-to-evaluate-sources-for-a-research-paper","canonicalUrl":"","搜素发动机系统简化":{"metaDescription":"Learn how to effectively and efficiently evaluate sources for your college research paper, as well as the kinds of sources you should avoid.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Your success in college has depended on problem-solving and figuring out how to navigate the academic maze. For example, you’ve successfully learned to register online, interpret syllabi, find your way around campus, and communicate with your professors. An additional requirement for your academic success is evaluating the credibility of sources you find to support your argument in your research paper.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_300046\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"630\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-300046\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/college-student-library-adobeStock_598835852.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"630\" height=\"420\" /> ©DimaBerlin / Adobe Stock[/caption]\r\n\r\nWithout good evidence for your paper, you will lack a good argument. This article explains criteria for evaluating sources you research and identifying the sources that please your professor. I also examine using Wikipedia as a starting point — but not as an ending point.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >How to evaluate sources for credibility</h2>\r\nYou can’t prepare a good meal with bad ingredients, and you can’t enjoy good takeout without reliable delivery. Similarly, the strength of your academic entrée, your argument, is based on quality source ingredients and reliable evidence.\r\n\r\nThe source evaluation process starts when you begin searching — and if you begin with library databases and similar sources, you’re as good as getting measured for your cap and gown. Many searches expedite the source evaluation process by including filters for publication dates, peer-reviewed materials, and full-text articles.\r\n\r\nIf you’re using library resources, the following guidelines are a review. If you’re using the open Internet or academic search engine resources, the guidelines are a necessity.\r\n\r\nHere’s a look at guidelines for evaluating sources your professors expect:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Currency:</strong> Review your assignment for professor restrictions on dates of sources. Publication dates are relevant to your topic, especially current topics. Academic search engines usually contain more current sources than databases.</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">Age matters when selecting sources. For example, current topics (technology and current events) need current sources. Literary topics (classic literature and art) may be supported with eight-to-ten-year-old sources. Verification of the publication date answers the question: When was the source published and does the data have relevance to the topic?</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Credibility:</strong> Author credibility includes demonstrating knowledge on the topic as well as being truthful, objective, and ethical. Credible authors are usually affiliated with credible institutions. Further investigate sources you’re unfamiliar with. Author credibility also includes the author citing similar credible authors and answers the question: Does the author demonstrate the credibility that’s necessary for the success of the paper?</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Accuracy:</strong> Read a few paragraphs in the middle of the text and determine the accuracy of information. Ideas should appear academic, documented, and well supported. Information accuracy answers the question: Is information accurate and presented fairly, and does it fulfill the purpose of the paper?</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Writing:</strong> Authors of scholarly sources should write like scholars. If they don’t, question their credibility — and also question the credibility of the source because scholarly journals are professionally edited. Validity of the author’s writing style answers the question: Is the information written in a scholarly documented style that contributes to understanding ideas in the source?</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Relevance:</strong> Even though your source information may check all boxes, it’s useless to you if it lacks relevance answering your research questions. The relevance of information answers the question: Does the information contribute to the argument of the paper?</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">If you’re using library databases, almost all sources have been vetted for accuracy and credibility of information. Use database sources as models for what to expect from other sources.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Analyzing websites as sources for research paper</h2>\r\nMany websites lack the vetting and quality control of databases and many academic search engines. Although most criteria for evaluating sources also apply to websites, one significant criteria of evaluating a source remains: the eye test or appearance of the website.\r\n\r\nHere are questions to ask to evaluate the appearance of websites:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Is it regularly maintained and updated?</li>\r\n \t<li>Are links relevant and functional?</li>\r\n \t<li>Does it appear professional and express an academic tone (see tone in Chapter 10)?</li>\r\n \t<li>Does it contain an academic, noncommercial extension such as .org, .gov, or .edu?</li>\r\n \t<li>Does the text avoid promotion of outlier claims such as the 9-11 attack on America never occurred?</li>\r\n \t<li>Is ownership of the website identified and credible?</li>\r\n \t<li>Is information supported with cited sources and active links to those sources?</li>\r\n \t<li>Is information sponsored by an organization with an unbiased interest in beliefs expressed?</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">Studies show that students lack evaluation skills to distinguish between factual sites and fictional sites. Critically evaluate every website you search.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Avoiding sources displeasing to professors</h2>\r\nEvaluating sources is critical to the source selection process and to ensuring academic evidence that supports your argument.\r\n\r\nLook at your source choices this way: You have about 12 to 15 source opportunities in a research paper to impress your professor. Why choose a nonscholarly questionable source that displeases your professor? Why chose Wikipedia when you’re also likely to find a scholarly library database (refer to the next section for more about Wikipedia)?\r\n\r\nWhen you evaluate a source, you definitely want to avoid ones that your professors generally dislike. Use these criteria for avoiding sources:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Articles from nonscholarly popular magazines</li>\r\n \t<li>Definitions from general dictionaries</li>\r\n \t<li>References from your textbook</li>\r\n \t<li>References from some self-published books</li>\r\n \t<li>Unscholarly blogs, websites, and social media</li>\r\n \t<li>Information-sharing sites that include open editing</li>\r\n \t<li>Biased, unethical, and nonmainstream sources</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Reckoning with Wikipedia</h2>\r\nSince its inception in 2001, Wikipedia may be the most controversial research source among professors in college classrooms. The issue is that information is edited by a community of volunteers — meaning the information lacks clear accountability. It’s like not having the adult in charge in the room.\r\n\r\nMy suggestion as a professor is to use Wikipedia (and sometimes AI) as background reading and fact check information before considering it. I prefer not to see Wikipedia in a citation in a college course because it doesn’t show much skill as a researcher. It requires as much effort as enjoying a sunset on Clearwater Beach.\r\n\r\nClarify with professors their approval or disapproval of Wikipedia. Like all matters of authority in higher education, professors’ word is as final as your final course grade.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Uncovering stones: Foundations of evidence</h2>\r\nYou may have learned that when you’re looking for the truth you should go directly to the source. But did you ever learn what to do at the source when you arrive there? The following sections show you how to convert sources into evidence and make meaning — when you get to the source.\r\n<h3>Reading for determining evidence</h3>\r\nReading is not only fundamental to your education, but it’s also fundamental to converting your sources into evidence.\r\n\r\nMaking meaning from your sources begins with skimming for evidence to evaluate usefulness of the source. In other words, read for information that answers your research questions and supports your argument. Here are some skimming strategies you can use for initial source evaluation:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read large print.</strong> Survey the field of material by reading the title, major headings, and pullouts. Skim supplemental sections such as abstracts and appendices. Identify headings related to your argument.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read subheadings.</strong> Read subheadings in the middle sections that connect to your purpose and look for cited sources in subheadings related to your thesis.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Get graphic.</strong> Identify graphic organizers (bullets, numbers, letters, and steps) that connect with your purpose.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Review the thesis and evidence.</strong> Determine if the thesis and argument show a connection with your questions.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Accept or reject.</strong> If the source shows value for your research, annotate and take notes as described in the sections that follow.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">For much more on how to tackle a college research paper, including the details on all of the phases involved, check out my book <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/book/academics-the-arts/language-language-arts/writing/college-research-papers-for-dummies-299537/\"><em>College Research Papers For Dummies</em></a>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab6\" >Reading journal articles</h2>\r\nRecall your first day on campus, trying to locate buildings where your classes were held. But after a few days, your quickly figured out the paths and eventually the shortcuts to arrive at class on time. Reading most journal articles requires similar practice to become familiar with a unique style of reading.\r\n\r\nHere’s the point about journal articles: You read scholarly articles for the purpose of answering your research question and acquiring information you can apply to your research. You’re looking for the thesis the author’s arguing and the connection between the author’s evidence and your argument. As you read, you’re deciding on the article’s value as evidence, background information, or new insights on your topic.\r\n\r\nPreparation for reading a journal article begins with studying your research question and identifying the information you’re looking for. Reading journal articles also familiarizes you with research writing and organizational structure. Here’s a plan for reading scholarly articles:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Skim the complete article.</strong> Skim the article. Look for headings that identify major sections such as abstract, introduction, statement of the problem, review of literature, and so forth. Look for author authority and affiliation as identified in the beginning of this section. As you read, add to your list of key terms.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read the abstract.</strong> From the summary of the article in the abstract, identify the thesis, argument, and the importance of the topic.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Identify the audience.</strong> Journal articles are written for the academic audience, and college undergraduates can consume most articles. But some journal articles are written for professional scholars whose reading background surpasses that of some undergraduates. If the topic is too complex and requires a technical background, give it your best effort and move to another article. Some scholars write exclusively to an audience of other professional scholars.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read the conclusion.</strong> Reading the conclusion helps you understand the argument and its implications. Look for analysis and synthesis and points you may want to support and defend in your argument. Look in the conclusion for the greater application of the topic. What does the article add to the knowledge of the topic being studied?</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read the introduction.</strong> Look for background information in the introduction that adds to your understanding of the topic. Locate the thesis near the end of the introduction. Create a research question that the article answers.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read the review of literature.</strong> The review of literature may appear as a separate heading or as a text discussion in the introduction. Literature reviews represent one of your best sources for identifying new evidence to support your argument. A review of literature includes analysis and synthesis of sources (see Chapter 9).</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read the discussion.</strong> The discussion (found in the body or middle section) illustrates the evidence that supports the argument. Look for evidence and sources that may apply to your research.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read citations and references.</strong> Dedicate a reading to studying citations and references. Note the authors and publications of sources and file them as potential evidence for your research.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Identify the argument.</strong> Journal articles are academic arguments. Evaluate each argument’s importance and application to your research.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n ","description":"Your success in college has depended on problem-solving and figuring out how to navigate the academic maze. For example, you’ve successfully learned to register online, interpret syllabi, find your way around campus, and communicate with your professors. An additional requirement for your academic success is evaluating the credibility of sources you find to support your argument in your research paper.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_300046\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"630\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-300046\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/college-student-library-adobeStock_598835852.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"630\" height=\"420\" /> ©DimaBerlin / Adobe Stock[/caption]\r\n\r\nWithout good evidence for your paper, you will lack a good argument. This article explains criteria for evaluating sources you research and identifying the sources that please your professor. I also examine using Wikipedia as a starting point — but not as an ending point.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >How to evaluate sources for credibility</h2>\r\nYou can’t prepare a good meal with bad ingredients, and you can’t enjoy good takeout without reliable delivery. Similarly, the strength of your academic entrée, your argument, is based on quality source ingredients and reliable evidence.\r\n\r\nThe source evaluation process starts when you begin searching — and if you begin with library databases and similar sources, you’re as good as getting measured for your cap and gown. Many searches expedite the source evaluation process by including filters for publication dates, peer-reviewed materials, and full-text articles.\r\n\r\nIf you’re using library resources, the following guidelines are a review. If you’re using the open Internet or academic search engine resources, the guidelines are a necessity.\r\n\r\nHere’s a look at guidelines for evaluating sources your professors expect:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Currency:</strong> Review your assignment for professor restrictions on dates of sources. Publication dates are relevant to your topic, especially current topics. Academic search engines usually contain more current sources than databases.</p>\r\n<p class=\"child-para\">Age matters when selecting sources. For example, current topics (technology and current events) need current sources. Literary topics (classic literature and art) may be supported with eight-to-ten-year-old sources. Verification of the publication date answers the question: When was the source published and does the data have relevance to the topic?</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Credibility:</strong> Author credibility includes demonstrating knowledge on the topic as well as being truthful, objective, and ethical. Credible authors are usually affiliated with credible institutions. Further investigate sources you’re unfamiliar with. Author credibility also includes the author citing similar credible authors and answers the question: Does the author demonstrate the credibility that’s necessary for the success of the paper?</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Accuracy:</strong> Read a few paragraphs in the middle of the text and determine the accuracy of information. Ideas should appear academic, documented, and well supported. Information accuracy answers the question: Is information accurate and presented fairly, and does it fulfill the purpose of the paper?</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Writing:</strong> Authors of scholarly sources should write like scholars. If they don’t, question their credibility — and also question the credibility of the source because scholarly journals are professionally edited. Validity of the author’s writing style answers the question: Is the information written in a scholarly documented style that contributes to understanding ideas in the source?</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Relevance:</strong> Even though your source information may check all boxes, it’s useless to you if it lacks relevance answering your research questions. The relevance of information answers the question: Does the information contribute to the argument of the paper?</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">If you’re using library databases, almost all sources have been vetted for accuracy and credibility of information. Use database sources as models for what to expect from other sources.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Analyzing websites as sources for research paper</h2>\r\nMany websites lack the vetting and quality control of databases and many academic search engines. Although most criteria for evaluating sources also apply to websites, one significant criteria of evaluating a source remains: the eye test or appearance of the website.\r\n\r\nHere are questions to ask to evaluate the appearance of websites:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Is it regularly maintained and updated?</li>\r\n \t<li>Are links relevant and functional?</li>\r\n \t<li>Does it appear professional and express an academic tone (see tone in Chapter 10)?</li>\r\n \t<li>Does it contain an academic, noncommercial extension such as .org, .gov, or .edu?</li>\r\n \t<li>Does the text avoid promotion of outlier claims such as the 9-11 attack on America never occurred?</li>\r\n \t<li>Is ownership of the website identified and credible?</li>\r\n \t<li>Is information supported with cited sources and active links to those sources?</li>\r\n \t<li>Is information sponsored by an organization with an unbiased interest in beliefs expressed?</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">Studies show that students lack evaluation skills to distinguish between factual sites and fictional sites. Critically evaluate every website you search.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Avoiding sources displeasing to professors</h2>\r\nEvaluating sources is critical to the source selection process and to ensuring academic evidence that supports your argument.\r\n\r\nLook at your source choices this way: You have about 12 to 15 source opportunities in a research paper to impress your professor. Why choose a nonscholarly questionable source that displeases your professor? Why chose Wikipedia when you’re also likely to find a scholarly library database (refer to the next section for more about Wikipedia)?\r\n\r\nWhen you evaluate a source, you definitely want to avoid ones that your professors generally dislike. Use these criteria for avoiding sources:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Articles from nonscholarly popular magazines</li>\r\n \t<li>Definitions from general dictionaries</li>\r\n \t<li>References from your textbook</li>\r\n \t<li>References from some self-published books</li>\r\n \t<li>Unscholarly blogs, websites, and social media</li>\r\n \t<li>Information-sharing sites that include open editing</li>\r\n \t<li>Biased, unethical, and nonmainstream sources</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Reckoning with Wikipedia</h2>\r\nSince its inception in 2001, Wikipedia may be the most controversial research source among professors in college classrooms. The issue is that information is edited by a community of volunteers — meaning the information lacks clear accountability. It’s like not having the adult in charge in the room.\r\n\r\nMy suggestion as a professor is to use Wikipedia (and sometimes AI) as background reading and fact check information before considering it. I prefer not to see Wikipedia in a citation in a college course because it doesn’t show much skill as a researcher. It requires as much effort as enjoying a sunset on Clearwater Beach.\r\n\r\nClarify with professors their approval or disapproval of Wikipedia. Like all matters of authority in higher education, professors’ word is as final as your final course grade.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Uncovering stones: Foundations of evidence</h2>\r\nYou may have learned that when you’re looking for the truth you should go directly to the source. But did you ever learn what to do at the source when you arrive there? The following sections show you how to convert sources into evidence and make meaning — when you get to the source.\r\n<h3>Reading for determining evidence</h3>\r\nReading is not only fundamental to your education, but it’s also fundamental to converting your sources into evidence.\r\n\r\nMaking meaning from your sources begins with skimming for evidence to evaluate usefulness of the source. In other words, read for information that answers your research questions and supports your argument. Here are some skimming strategies you can use for initial source evaluation:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read large print.</strong> Survey the field of material by reading the title, major headings, and pullouts. Skim supplemental sections such as abstracts and appendices. Identify headings related to your argument.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read subheadings.</strong> Read subheadings in the middle sections that connect to your purpose and look for cited sources in subheadings related to your thesis.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Get graphic.</strong> Identify graphic organizers (bullets, numbers, letters, and steps) that connect with your purpose.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Review the thesis and evidence.</strong> Determine if the thesis and argument show a connection with your questions.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Accept or reject.</strong> If the source shows value for your research, annotate and take notes as described in the sections that follow.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">For much more on how to tackle a college research paper, including the details on all of the phases involved, check out my book <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/book/academics-the-arts/language-language-arts/writing/college-research-papers-for-dummies-299537/\"><em>College Research Papers For Dummies</em></a>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab6\" >Reading journal articles</h2>\r\nRecall your first day on campus, trying to locate buildings where your classes were held. But after a few days, your quickly figured out the paths and eventually the shortcuts to arrive at class on time. Reading most journal articles requires similar practice to become familiar with a unique style of reading.\r\n\r\nHere’s the point about journal articles: You read scholarly articles for the purpose of answering your research question and acquiring information you can apply to your research. You’re looking for the thesis the author’s arguing and the connection between the author’s evidence and your argument. As you read, you’re deciding on the article’s value as evidence, background information, or new insights on your topic.\r\n\r\nPreparation for reading a journal article begins with studying your research question and identifying the information you’re looking for. Reading journal articles also familiarizes you with research writing and organizational structure. Here’s a plan for reading scholarly articles:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Skim the complete article.</strong> Skim the article. Look for headings that identify major sections such as abstract, introduction, statement of the problem, review of literature, and so forth. Look for author authority and affiliation as identified in the beginning of this section. As you read, add to your list of key terms.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read the abstract.</strong> From the summary of the article in the abstract, identify the thesis, argument, and the importance of the topic.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Identify the audience.</strong> Journal articles are written for the academic audience, and college undergraduates can consume most articles. But some journal articles are written for professional scholars whose reading background surpasses that of some undergraduates. If the topic is too complex and requires a technical background, give it your best effort and move to another article. Some scholars write exclusively to an audience of other professional scholars.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read the conclusion.</strong> Reading the conclusion helps you understand the argument and its implications. Look for analysis and synthesis and points you may want to support and defend in your argument. Look in the conclusion for the greater application of the topic. What does the article add to the knowledge of the topic being studied?</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read the introduction.</strong> Look for background information in the introduction that adds to your understanding of the topic. Locate the thesis near the end of the introduction. Create a research question that the article answers.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read the review of literature.</strong> The review of literature may appear as a separate heading or as a text discussion in the introduction. Literature reviews represent one of your best sources for identifying new evidence to support your argument. A review of literature includes analysis and synthesis of sources (see Chapter 9).</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read the discussion.</strong> The discussion (found in the body or middle section) illustrates the evidence that supports the argument. Look for evidence and sources that may apply to your research.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Read citations and references.</strong> Dedicate a reading to studying citations and references. Note the authors and publications of sources and file them as potential evidence for your research.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Identify the argument.</strong> Journal articles are academic arguments. Evaluate each argument’s importance and application to your research.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n ","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":34539,"name":"Joe Giampalmi","slug":"joe-giampalmi","description":"<b>Joe Giampalmi, EdD,</b> is a hall-of-fame educator who’s been teaching students to use active voice, Oxford commas, and supporting arguments for more than five decades. He is the author of <i>APA Style &amp; Citations For Dummies</i> and <i>College Writing For Dummies</i>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/34539"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33711,"title":"Writing","slug":"writing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"How to evaluate sources for credibility","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Analyzing websites as sources for research paper","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Avoiding sources displeasing to professors","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"Reckoning with Wikipedia","target":"#tab4"},{"label":"Uncovering stones: Foundations of evidence","target":"#tab5"},{"label":"Reading journal 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Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Writing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"},"slug":"writing","categoryId":33711}],"title":"How to Succeed in Your College Writing Assignments","strippedTitle":"how to succeed in your college writing assignments","slug":"what-to-know-about-writing-in-college","canonicalUrl":"","搜素发动机系统简化":{"metaDescription":"Learn about the different ways writing in college is different from writing in high school and how you can succeed in your college writing.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Congratulations on earning your college admission. You’ve successfully fulfilled the requirements for 12 years of school, and you’re entering a world that defies the math you’ve learned. Grade 12 isn’t followed by Grade 13. It’s followed by an opportunity to change your life and your family’s life, and it begins with your first-year writing in college.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_299858\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"630\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-299858\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/college-studying-laptop-adobeStock_564193390.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"630\" height=\"396\" /> ©Peopleimages.com / Adobe Stock[/caption]\r\n\r\nYou can become one of almost a third of adults who earn college degrees. But capitalizing on that opportunity will require an academic commitment that exceeds your efforts in the past. Your immediate challenge requires conquering your college writing class and/or writing college essays in other classes, challenges that destroys the dreams of almost 40 percent of first-year students who never become sophomores.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >What to expect in your college writing course</h2>\r\nYour admission to college entitles you to a classroom seat — anywhere in the classroom you choose to sit. You’ll also receive a syllabus — your last reminder of assignments due throughout the semester. A <em>syllabus</em> is a contract between you and your professor.\r\n\r\nOn your first day of college class, you’ll recognize that you’re no longer in high school and your class size is most likely smaller than high school. Take a look around the room, and you’ll see unfamiliar people who feel equally uncomfortable. You may feel similar to how you felt the first day in first grade, but you now have your cell phone for security.\r\n\r\nThe following sections identify what practices from high school English you won’t expect to happen in college writing, including a comparison to your college writing class. You can also find information about what your professor will (and won’t) do.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >College-level writing is not like your high school English class</h2>\r\nHere are practices common to your high school English class that you’ll no longer experience in your college classroom:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Daily reminders:</strong> Your high school teachers saw you daily and reminded you of upcoming assignments. Your college syllabus is your one-time reminder of everything due for the semester.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Flexible deadlines:</strong> High school deadlines for essays, text, and projects are carved in sand. College deadlines indelibly recorded in your syllabus are changed as often as a harvest moon during leap year.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Grading with pity points:</strong> College grades are based exclusively on academic performance with no consideration of how well you organized the community-wide blood drive or how many times you were student of the month.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Five-days-a-week classes:</strong> College writing classes generally meet for 75 minutes twice a week, maybe 50 minutes three times a week. Your college study day begins after classes end.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Class interruptions:</strong> You won’t miss in-class announcements, calls to the office, late arrivals and early dismissals, assemblies, abbreviated schedules, and knocks on the door. Classes are the business of college, and the business is life-altering.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Regular testing:</strong> High school tests provide numerous opportunities to stabilize grades and raise grades over a period of time. College courses commonly include three or four graded assignments, each one covering four times the content of your high school tests.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Unaccountable readings:</strong> High school reading assignments frequently get lost in the wilderness and disappear from being required. College reading assignments have multiple lives, recurring in tests, writing assignments, class discussions, and final exams.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe table below compares some other areas so you can see how high school and college writing classes differ.\r\n<h3>Differentiating High School and College Writing</h3>\r\n<table>\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<th></th>\r\n<th><strong>High School</strong></th>\r\n<th><strong>College</strong></th>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><strong>Assignments</strong></td>\r\n<td>Essays and research papers</td>\r\n<td>Essays, research papers, reaction papers, reports, reviews of literature, and media presentations</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><strong>Discipline</strong></td>\r\n<td>Primarily English class</td>\r\n<td>Across disciplines</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><strong>Evidence</strong></td>\r\n<td>Opinions and limited research</td>\r\n<td>Primary and secondary sources, surveys, and observations</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><strong>Length</strong></td>\r\n<td>400 to 500 words</td>\r\n<td>650 to 700 words</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><strong>Revision</strong></td>\r\n<td>Submitted as one daft</td>\r\n<td>Submission process includes multi-drafts. Drafts and feedback usually required to be submitted with portfolio</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><strong>Thesis</strong></td>\r\n<td>Broad thesis adaptable to multiple sources of supporting information</td>\r\n<td>A thesis that identifies an arguable issue related to the assigned question</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n</tbody>\r\n</table>\r\nYou’ll never appreciate your high school teachers as much as you will when you walk into your first college class with the excitement of “Where do I start?” and walk out with the confusion of “How do I start?”\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Identifying what you're responsible for</h2>\r\nGrowing up isn’t easy, and you’ve been longing for your independence since you first crossed the street alone. Congratulations, you’re a fully responsible adult with some, not nearly all, of the obligations.\r\n\r\nYou were most likely a very responsible high school student, but more than likely you had a family support system that included providing food, shelter, and some clothing. Your responsibility will be tested in college as you exercise your new independence.\r\n\r\nHere’s a look at some of your new responsibilities as college student for all your courses, not just college writing:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Attend all classes.</strong> Attending class is your number one priority as a college student. Professors design classes to follow a logical sequence and academic rhythm. When you miss a class, you break the rhythm. Classes are to college what the Internet is to your social life.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Attending class also means arriving at least five minutes early and not leaving early or abusing restroom needs. You don’t want your professor to associate your name with arrival and departure times. You’re expected to remain grounded during class time.</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Plan for your success.</strong> Start planning completion of your degree by scheduling a meeting with your academic advisor to anticipate courses your first two years of college. You may not know your major, but you should determine a general field of study such as humanities, sciences, business, communications, and so forth.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Familiarize yourself with campus resources.</strong> During the first week of school, search your school’s website to determine locations and contact information for resources such as health services, writing center, career planning, academic skills center, recreation center, and public safety.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Meet deadlines.</strong> Responsible people meet deadlines, sometimes a day early. Missing deadlines is the second easiest way to destroy your college dreams; missing classes and assignments is the first way.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Stay healthy.</strong> A healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, provides the stamina to meet the physical demands of classes and study. It’s sometimes described as a strong mind through a strong body.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Begin career planning.</strong> Almost every college campus has a career planning center. They guide you through career interest planning, resume building, and interview preparation. You will learn life-altering information such as the workplace has no spring break and you have no cut days.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Remember: College professors are nonnegotiable</h2>\r\nYou learned which teachers in high school you could manipulate for hall passes, assignment extensions, or full class discussions of your favorite music. That was high school. Save your negotiating skills for your career. Professors don’t negotiate with terrorists or students. They only negotiate with their supervisors.\r\n\r\nYour high school teachers and college professors are as different as synchronized swimming and ballroom dancing. Therefore, you face a greater chance of drowning in a college class.\r\n<h3>Everyone has other courses and responsibilities</h3>\r\nHigh school students regularly complain to their teachers that they’re overwhelmed with work from other classes and that multiple tests fall on similar days. Say goodbye to the fantasy high school world and hello to the grown-up world where people you’re responsible to expect you to fulfill your obligations. As a first-year college student, you’re at the bottom of the food chain and responsible to everyone.\r\n\r\nEveryday responsible adults fulfill work responsibilities with family members sick at home, transportation problems, relationship issues, financial complications, personal health concerns — and many more serious issues. That’s the standard for responsible adults.\r\n\r\nSuccessful college students are adults who find a way to fulfill their responsibilities and utilize resources available when they need help. High school students shed their training wheels when they enter college. Older nontraditional students already learned to manage complex adult lifestyles that include full-time employment and full-time family responsibilities.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Debunking writing myths</h2>\r\nWhen first-year-college students become seniors, they thrive on telling composition course stories, such as being assigned to read James Michener’s 868-page <em>Alaska</em> and write a 5,000-word reaction paper over the weekend.\r\n\r\nThe Michener assignment exemplifies a myth associated with first-year writing. Here’s a look at other myths and their realities.\r\n<h3>Myth No. 1: My professor doesn’t like my writing style</h3>\r\nProfessors don’t evaluate first-year writing primarily on style unless your interpretation of style includes faulty sentence structure, unintended fragments, inactive and weak verbs, vague nouns, and long sentences with delayed subjects and verbs. If that last sentence sounds like your style, your professor is correct and your writing needs a new wardrobe.\r\n\r\nAs a general rule, when it comes to college essay writing and research papers, etc., professors accept any style that includes clear and somewhat concise writing. If you think a professor doesn’t like your style, talk with your professor to clarify the meaning of “writing style,” what the professor dislikes about the writing, and how you can fix it.\r\n<h3>Myth No. 2: Writing is just too darn hard</h3>\r\nWriting a college essay, and other writing assignments, are difficult. But some students make them more difficult by not following what research shows are best practices for successful college writing. You’ve designed a plan to fail if you start writing assignments late, neglect to analyze the assignment, skip background reading and planning, and start to take the essay seriously two days before deadline.\r\n\r\nThat approach is like typing your assignment on your phone wearing mittens. You can make writing easier by following the process of writing: prewriting, drafting, revising, and preparing for presentation.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">For the details on each of the prewriting, drafting, revising, and preparing for presentation phases, check out my book <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/book/academics-the-arts/language-language-arts/writing/college-writing-for-dummies-294549/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><em>College Writing For Dummies</em></a>.</p>\r\nWriting doesn’t come easy for most people, including most professional writers. But writing isn’t an insurmountable task that only a few can master. Most people learn to write by following the practices of good writing, one of which is commitment. But it will never be as easy as skills you’re more interested in and more motivated to learn.\r\n<h3>Myth No. 3: Only problem writers need feedback</h3>\r\nAll writers need feedback to tell them what works and what doesn’t work. Classroom instructors at all levels provide opportunities for feedback. The rejections of the classic books was feedback that told the authors their books needed revising. Feedback is to writing what ice is to learning to skate. You can’t move forward without it.\r\n<h3>Myth No. 4: I suffer from writer's block</h3>\r\nPicture this. You and your significant other are enjoying a romantic dinner at your favorite restaurant. You’re waiting patiently for your dinner as your server appears at your table and says: “I’m sorry we can’t serve you dinner. The chef is experiencing culinary block.”\r\n\r\nBeing blocked, or the inability to perform creativity, has been attributed exclusively to the art of writing. Electricians, teachers, chefs, pilots, and so forth don’t experience suffering from the block. Writers and creative innovators experience regular challenges that are addressed with problem solving and decision making. You can always do something to move your writing forward: read about the topic, question your organization, rethink your opening sentence, and so forth.\r\n\r\nWriting requires completion of a series of complex processes that results in successful drafts. No student with a respectable work ethic can be blocked 360 degrees.\r\n<h3>Myth No. 5: I can revise in ten minutes</h3>\r\nWithout feedback, writers wouldn’t know if their writing is good or bad. A rejected novel tells Stephen King his book is unsuccessful. A Pulitzer Prize tells Ernest Hemingway his writing is good, and similarly academic writers who think they can revise in ten minutes not only confuse revising with editing, but also underestimate the influence of revising on improving writing.\r\n\r\nHere’s a quick overview how editing and revising differ:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Editing:</strong> A form of revising, editing is usually associated with correcting. An editing session may be completed in ten minutes, but it’s like the first step of a morning run.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Revising:</strong> Revising is the process where writers see the biggest improvements in their writing. It ranges from rethinking structure, organization, focus, development, and flow to correcting rules of grammar, usage, punctuation, and spelling. Revising isn’t correcting writing, but clarifying the writing message. Good writers are good revisers.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h3>Myth No. 6: Writers are born</h3>\r\nIs anyone born with polished skills in any field? This line of thinking implies a fixed mindset; the belief that you’re either a college student or not or a confident person or not — and you can’t do anything to improve. Education and self-fulfillment result from a growth mindset, the belief that improvement results from hard work.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Writers become good when they work hard developing the skills needed to become a writer, such as information gathering, planning, organizing, drafting, and revising. First-year writing courses offer a venue to improve writing. Students who work hard at it, and get help when they need it, succeed.</p>","description":"Congratulations on earning your college admission. You’ve successfully fulfilled the requirements for 12 years of school, and you’re entering a world that defies the math you’ve learned. Grade 12 isn’t followed by Grade 13. It’s followed by an opportunity to change your life and your family’s life, and it begins with your first-year writing in college.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_299858\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"630\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-299858\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/college-studying-laptop-adobeStock_564193390.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"630\" height=\"396\" /> ©Peopleimages.com / Adobe Stock[/caption]\r\n\r\nYou can become one of almost a third of adults who earn college degrees. But capitalizing on that opportunity will require an academic commitment that exceeds your efforts in the past. Your immediate challenge requires conquering your college writing class and/or writing college essays in other classes, challenges that destroys the dreams of almost 40 percent of first-year students who never become sophomores.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >What to expect in your college writing course</h2>\r\nYour admission to college entitles you to a classroom seat — anywhere in the classroom you choose to sit. You’ll also receive a syllabus — your last reminder of assignments due throughout the semester. A <em>syllabus</em> is a contract between you and your professor.\r\n\r\nOn your first day of college class, you’ll recognize that you’re no longer in high school and your class size is most likely smaller than high school. Take a look around the room, and you’ll see unfamiliar people who feel equally uncomfortable. You may feel similar to how you felt the first day in first grade, but you now have your cell phone for security.\r\n\r\nThe following sections identify what practices from high school English you won’t expect to happen in college writing, including a comparison to your college writing class. You can also find information about what your professor will (and won’t) do.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >College-level writing is not like your high school English class</h2>\r\nHere are practices common to your high school English class that you’ll no longer experience in your college classroom:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Daily reminders:</strong> Your high school teachers saw you daily and reminded you of upcoming assignments. Your college syllabus is your one-time reminder of everything due for the semester.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Flexible deadlines:</strong> High school deadlines for essays, text, and projects are carved in sand. College deadlines indelibly recorded in your syllabus are changed as often as a harvest moon during leap year.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Grading with pity points:</strong> College grades are based exclusively on academic performance with no consideration of how well you organized the community-wide blood drive or how many times you were student of the month.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Five-days-a-week classes:</strong> College writing classes generally meet for 75 minutes twice a week, maybe 50 minutes three times a week. Your college study day begins after classes end.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Class interruptions:</strong> You won’t miss in-class announcements, calls to the office, late arrivals and early dismissals, assemblies, abbreviated schedules, and knocks on the door. Classes are the business of college, and the business is life-altering.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Regular testing:</strong> High school tests provide numerous opportunities to stabilize grades and raise grades over a period of time. College courses commonly include three or four graded assignments, each one covering four times the content of your high school tests.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Unaccountable readings:</strong> High school reading assignments frequently get lost in the wilderness and disappear from being required. College reading assignments have multiple lives, recurring in tests, writing assignments, class discussions, and final exams.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe table below compares some other areas so you can see how high school and college writing classes differ.\r\n<h3>Differentiating High School and College Writing</h3>\r\n<table>\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<th></th>\r\n<th><strong>High School</strong></th>\r\n<th><strong>College</strong></th>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><strong>Assignments</strong></td>\r\n<td>Essays and research papers</td>\r\n<td>Essays, research papers, reaction papers, reports, reviews of literature, and media presentations</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><strong>Discipline</strong></td>\r\n<td>Primarily English class</td>\r\n<td>Across disciplines</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><strong>Evidence</strong></td>\r\n<td>Opinions and limited research</td>\r\n<td>Primary and secondary sources, surveys, and observations</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><strong>Length</strong></td>\r\n<td>400 to 500 words</td>\r\n<td>650 to 700 words</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><strong>Revision</strong></td>\r\n<td>Submitted as one daft</td>\r\n<td>Submission process includes multi-drafts. Drafts and feedback usually required to be submitted with portfolio</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td><strong>Thesis</strong></td>\r\n<td>Broad thesis adaptable to multiple sources of supporting information</td>\r\n<td>A thesis that identifies an arguable issue related to the assigned question</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n</tbody>\r\n</table>\r\nYou’ll never appreciate your high school teachers as much as you will when you walk into your first college class with the excitement of “Where do I start?” and walk out with the confusion of “How do I start?”\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Identifying what you're responsible for</h2>\r\nGrowing up isn’t easy, and you’ve been longing for your independence since you first crossed the street alone. Congratulations, you’re a fully responsible adult with some, not nearly all, of the obligations.\r\n\r\nYou were most likely a very responsible high school student, but more than likely you had a family support system that included providing food, shelter, and some clothing. Your responsibility will be tested in college as you exercise your new independence.\r\n\r\nHere’s a look at some of your new responsibilities as college student for all your courses, not just college writing:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Attend all classes.</strong> Attending class is your number one priority as a college student. Professors design classes to follow a logical sequence and academic rhythm. When you miss a class, you break the rhythm. Classes are to college what the Internet is to your social life.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Attending class also means arriving at least five minutes early and not leaving early or abusing restroom needs. You don’t want your professor to associate your name with arrival and departure times. You’re expected to remain grounded during class time.</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Plan for your success.</strong> Start planning completion of your degree by scheduling a meeting with your academic advisor to anticipate courses your first two years of college. You may not know your major, but you should determine a general field of study such as humanities, sciences, business, communications, and so forth.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Familiarize yourself with campus resources.</strong> During the first week of school, search your school’s website to determine locations and contact information for resources such as health services, writing center, career planning, academic skills center, recreation center, and public safety.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Meet deadlines.</strong> Responsible people meet deadlines, sometimes a day early. Missing deadlines is the second easiest way to destroy your college dreams; missing classes and assignments is the first way.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Stay healthy.</strong> A healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, provides the stamina to meet the physical demands of classes and study. It’s sometimes described as a strong mind through a strong body.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Begin career planning.</strong> Almost every college campus has a career planning center. They guide you through career interest planning, resume building, and interview preparation. You will learn life-altering information such as the workplace has no spring break and you have no cut days.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Remember: College professors are nonnegotiable</h2>\r\nYou learned which teachers in high school you could manipulate for hall passes, assignment extensions, or full class discussions of your favorite music. That was high school. Save your negotiating skills for your career. Professors don’t negotiate with terrorists or students. They only negotiate with their supervisors.\r\n\r\nYour high school teachers and college professors are as different as synchronized swimming and ballroom dancing. Therefore, you face a greater chance of drowning in a college class.\r\n<h3>Everyone has other courses and responsibilities</h3>\r\nHigh school students regularly complain to their teachers that they’re overwhelmed with work from other classes and that multiple tests fall on similar days. Say goodbye to the fantasy high school world and hello to the grown-up world where people you’re responsible to expect you to fulfill your obligations. As a first-year college student, you’re at the bottom of the food chain and responsible to everyone.\r\n\r\nEveryday responsible adults fulfill work responsibilities with family members sick at home, transportation problems, relationship issues, financial complications, personal health concerns — and many more serious issues. That’s the standard for responsible adults.\r\n\r\nSuccessful college students are adults who find a way to fulfill their responsibilities and utilize resources available when they need help. High school students shed their training wheels when they enter college. Older nontraditional students already learned to manage complex adult lifestyles that include full-time employment and full-time family responsibilities.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Debunking writing myths</h2>\r\nWhen first-year-college students become seniors, they thrive on telling composition course stories, such as being assigned to read James Michener’s 868-page <em>Alaska</em> and write a 5,000-word reaction paper over the weekend.\r\n\r\nThe Michener assignment exemplifies a myth associated with first-year writing. Here’s a look at other myths and their realities.\r\n<h3>Myth No. 1: My professor doesn’t like my writing style</h3>\r\nProfessors don’t evaluate first-year writing primarily on style unless your interpretation of style includes faulty sentence structure, unintended fragments, inactive and weak verbs, vague nouns, and long sentences with delayed subjects and verbs. If that last sentence sounds like your style, your professor is correct and your writing needs a new wardrobe.\r\n\r\nAs a general rule, when it comes to college essay writing and research papers, etc., professors accept any style that includes clear and somewhat concise writing. If you think a professor doesn’t like your style, talk with your professor to clarify the meaning of “writing style,” what the professor dislikes about the writing, and how you can fix it.\r\n<h3>Myth No. 2: Writing is just too darn hard</h3>\r\nWriting a college essay, and other writing assignments, are difficult. But some students make them more difficult by not following what research shows are best practices for successful college writing. You’ve designed a plan to fail if you start writing assignments late, neglect to analyze the assignment, skip background reading and planning, and start to take the essay seriously two days before deadline.\r\n\r\nThat approach is like typing your assignment on your phone wearing mittens. You can make writing easier by following the process of writing: prewriting, drafting, revising, and preparing for presentation.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">For the details on each of the prewriting, drafting, revising, and preparing for presentation phases, check out my book <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/book/academics-the-arts/language-language-arts/writing/college-writing-for-dummies-294549/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"><em>College Writing For Dummies</em></a>.</p>\r\nWriting doesn’t come easy for most people, including most professional writers. But writing isn’t an insurmountable task that only a few can master. Most people learn to write by following the practices of good writing, one of which is commitment. But it will never be as easy as skills you’re more interested in and more motivated to learn.\r\n<h3>Myth No. 3: Only problem writers need feedback</h3>\r\nAll writers need feedback to tell them what works and what doesn’t work. Classroom instructors at all levels provide opportunities for feedback. The rejections of the classic books was feedback that told the authors their books needed revising. Feedback is to writing what ice is to learning to skate. You can’t move forward without it.\r\n<h3>Myth No. 4: I suffer from writer's block</h3>\r\nPicture this. You and your significant other are enjoying a romantic dinner at your favorite restaurant. You’re waiting patiently for your dinner as your server appears at your table and says: “I’m sorry we can’t serve you dinner. The chef is experiencing culinary block.”\r\n\r\nBeing blocked, or the inability to perform creativity, has been attributed exclusively to the art of writing. Electricians, teachers, chefs, pilots, and so forth don’t experience suffering from the block. Writers and creative innovators experience regular challenges that are addressed with problem solving and decision making. You can always do something to move your writing forward: read about the topic, question your organization, rethink your opening sentence, and so forth.\r\n\r\nWriting requires completion of a series of complex processes that results in successful drafts. No student with a respectable work ethic can be blocked 360 degrees.\r\n<h3>Myth No. 5: I can revise in ten minutes</h3>\r\nWithout feedback, writers wouldn’t know if their writing is good or bad. A rejected novel tells Stephen King his book is unsuccessful. A Pulitzer Prize tells Ernest Hemingway his writing is good, and similarly academic writers who think they can revise in ten minutes not only confuse revising with editing, but also underestimate the influence of revising on improving writing.\r\n\r\nHere’s a quick overview how editing and revising differ:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Editing:</strong> A form of revising, editing is usually associated with correcting. An editing session may be completed in ten minutes, but it’s like the first step of a morning run.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Revising:</strong> Revising is the process where writers see the biggest improvements in their writing. It ranges from rethinking structure, organization, focus, development, and flow to correcting rules of grammar, usage, punctuation, and spelling. Revising isn’t correcting writing, but clarifying the writing message. Good writers are good revisers.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h3>Myth No. 6: Writers are born</h3>\r\nIs anyone born with polished skills in any field? This line of thinking implies a fixed mindset; the belief that you’re either a college student or not or a confident person or not — and you can’t do anything to improve. Education and self-fulfillment result from a growth mindset, the belief that improvement results from hard work.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Writers become good when they work hard developing the skills needed to become a writer, such as information gathering, planning, organizing, drafting, and revising. First-year writing courses offer a venue to improve writing. Students who work hard at it, and get help when they need it, succeed.</p>","blurb":"","authors":[],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33711,"title":"Writing","slug":"writing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"What to expect in your college writing course","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"College-level writing is not like your high school English class","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Identifying what you're responsible for","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"Remember: College professors are nonnegotiable","target":"#tab4"},{"label":"Debunking writing myths","target":"#tab5"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":294700,"title":"College Writing For Dummies Cheat 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Journaling?","slug":"what-is-reflective-journaling","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/296242"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":294549,"slug":"college-writing-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119895039","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119895030/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119895030/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119895030-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119895030/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119895030/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/college-writing-for-dummies-cover-9781119895039-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"College 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years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-07-24T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":299854},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2024-07-05T17:51:50+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-08-02T20:45:36+00:00","timestamp":"2024-08-02T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Writing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"},"slug":"writing","categoryId":33711}],"title":"College Research Papers For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"college research papers for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"college-research-papers-for-dummies","canonicalUrl":"","搜素发动机系统简化":{"metaDescription":"This Cheat Sheet offers tips for writing college research papers, including online academic sources, unconventional rules of grammar, and more.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"College researchers can’t have too many resource options for searching information. A researcher without a supply of resources is like a well without water and no source of quenching academic thirst.\r\n\r\nCollege researchers frequently need supplemental sources of academic research. Additional resources also include uncommon rules of grammar and usage and strategies for presenting research papers in the classroom.\r\n\r\nThis Cheat Sheet offers online academic sources, unconventional rules of grammar and usage, tips for presenting research papers, and more.","description":"College researchers can’t have too many resource options for searching information. A researcher without a supply of resources is like a well without water and no source of quenching academic thirst.\r\n\r\nCollege researchers frequently need supplemental sources of academic research. Additional resources also include uncommon rules of grammar and usage and strategies for presenting research papers in the classroom.\r\n\r\nThis Cheat Sheet offers online academic sources, unconventional rules of grammar and usage, tips for presenting research papers, and more.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":34539,"name":"Joe Giampalmi","slug":"joe-giampalmi","description":"<b>Joe Giampalmi, EdD,</b> is a hall-of-fame educator who’s been teaching students to use active voice, Oxford commas, and supporting arguments for more than five decades. He is the author of <i>APA Style &amp; Citations For Dummies</i> and <i>College Writing For Dummies</i>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/34539"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33711,"title":"Writing","slug":"writing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":299880,"title":"How To Write a College Research Paper","slug":"how-to-write-a-college-research-paper","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299880"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":300038,"title":"How To Evaluate Sources for a Research Paper","slug":"how-to-evaluate-sources-for-a-research-paper","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/300038"}},{"articleId":299880,"title":"How To Write a College Research Paper","slug":"how-to-write-a-college-research-paper","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299880"}},{"articleId":299854,"title":"How To Succeed in Your College Writing Assignments","slug":"what-to-know-about-writing-in-college","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299854"}},{"articleId":296370,"title":"The Many Benefits of Keeping a Journal","slug":"the-many-benefits-of-keeping-a-journal","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/296370"}},{"articleId":296242,"title":"What Is Reflective Journaling?","slug":"what-is-reflective-journaling","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/296242"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":299537,"slug":"college-research-papers-for-dummies","isbn":"9781394191109","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1394191103/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1394191103/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1394191103-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1394191103/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1394191103/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/college-research-papers-for-dummies-9781394191109-207x255.jpg","width":207,"height":255},"title":"College Research Papers For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b><b data-author-id=\"34539\">Joe Giampalmi</b>, EdD,</b> is a hall-of-fame educator who’s been teaching students to use active voice, Oxford commas, and supporting arguments for more than five decades. He is the author of <i>APA Style &amp; Citations For Dummies</i> and <i>College Writing For Dummies</i>.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":34539,"name":"Joe Giampalmi","slug":"joe-giampalmi","description":"<b>Joe Giampalmi, EdD,</b> is a hall-of-fame educator who’s been teaching students to use active voice, Oxford commas, and supporting arguments for more than five decades. He is the author of <i>APA Style &amp; Citations For Dummies</i> and <i>College Writing For Dummies</i>.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/34539"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[{"title":"For the College Bound","slug":"for-the-college-bound","collectionId":299891}],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;writing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394191109&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64cac40f0fdeb\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;writing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394191109&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64cac40f102fd\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":0,"title":"","slug":null,"categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/"}}],"content":[{"title":"10-plus online resources for improving research writing","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>College research papers are your invitation to participate at the adult dinner table with other scholars. And the menu includes portions of some of the tastiest, yet unlikely sources you likely never used.</p>\n<p>Many of the following sources are free, and many have premium versions available through your college library. These are A-list sources for your college research. You can access most of them through your college library.</p>\n<ul>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Library of Congress:</strong> The largest library in the world contains millions of books, drawings, web pages, digital documents, legislature, videos, audio recordings, maps, photographs, newspapers, music, web archives, and 3D objects. The collection also includes historical American newspapers from 1777 to 1963. Information is searchable by author, subject, title, and call number. Library support includes a researcher orientation and “Ask a librarian.”</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">The Library of Congress occupies three buildings on Capital Hill in Washington, D.C., and is available for student research onsite or online. Add a visit to the Library of Congress to your academic bucket list.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Google Books:</strong> Google Books is an ebook distribution service operated by Google. Digital copies of books are provided by publishers and Google partners.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">Google Books was enhanced with a donation equivalent to $100 million of computer time that resulted in an online library of more than 10 million free searchable eBooks and magazines. Books are available as downloads or as online reading. The collection includes books in more than 400 languages.</p>\n</li>\n<li><strong>Project Gutenberg:</strong> Project Gutenberg is a library of more than 70,000 free ebooks, available to download or read online. The collection includes the world’s greatest literature, digitized by thousands of volunteers. Site features include collections of books on similar topics and lists of the most downloaded books. The first document downloaded was the <em>Declaration of Independence.  </em></li>\n<li><strong>Science.gov:</strong> Science.gov is a collection of scientific research in full-text format. The site searches for materials from more than 60 databases and 2,000 scientific websites. The site continues to make available free journal articles, peer-reviewed articles, and research reports funded by federal science agencies. Information is available, without registration, to anyone interested in science.</li>\n<li><strong>Digital Commons Network:</strong> Digital Commons Network is a collection of free full-text scholarly articles from universities worldwide. It connects students and other researchers to peer-reviewed journal articles, in addition to dissertations, book chapters, and conference proceedings. The collection is organized and managed by university librarians worldwide.</li>\n<li><strong>PubMed Central:</strong> PubMed Central (PMC), part of the National Institutes of Health, is an academic database available for college students and other researchers. It contains free full-text scholarly articles in the fields of medicines and life sciences. PMC archives more than 8 million full-text articles.</li>\n<li><strong>WorldCat:</strong> WorldCat is a database that allows users to search collections in more than 10,000 libraries. It includes access to books, full-text articles, and materials available in local libraries worldwide. If you access WorldCat through your university library, you can request materials through the interlibrary loan system. Thousands of libraries have contributed access to millions of books, magazines, maps, photos, movies, audiobooks, and genealogical records.</li>\n<li><strong>Internet Archive:</strong> Internet Archive, a digital library of network sites, includes millions of free books, software, and more. Its “About” page describes its holdings as 737 billion web pages, 41 million books and texts, 14.8 million audio recordings (including 240 live concerts), 84 million videos, 4.4 million images, and 890,000 software programs. Its mission is described as providing “universal access to all knowledge.” Materials are open to anyone who opens a free account.</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Project MUSE:</strong> Project MUSE is a database of peer-reviewed academic journal articles and electronic books from more that 400 universities and scholarly organizations. Its sources focus on the humanities and social sciences. The nonprofit online collaborative between Johns Hopkins University and the Milton S. Eisenhauer Library at Johns Hopkins represents one of the world’s largest databases between libraries and publishers.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">MUSE’s journal articles are available by subscription to libraries, with more than 2,000 organizational subscriptions worldwide. Subscribers receive full-text PDFs. The database includes tutorials and instructional materials.</p>\n</li>\n<li><strong>ResearchGate:</strong> ResearchGate is a research and social networking site where researchers can share their work, locate collaborators, and ask questions about their research. It’s one of the world’s most active academic social networking sites, with a majority of its researchers in the sciences. Journal articles are free to read. Uploading research and engaging in discussion requires registration. ResearchGate users are approaching 20 million.</li>\n<li><strong>JSTOR:</strong> Short for “journal storage,” JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and other mostly peer-reviewed academic sources focused in the fields of the humanities and social sciences. The award-winning site provides research sources for professional scholars, students, journalists, and scientists. Almost all college libraries provide access to a version of JSTOR, and free versions are available through public domain and open access.</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Your college library:</strong> College libraries offer quiet and solitude environments that you may crave after your days in school. College students use the library for one of two good reasons: research or study. As a research location, it provides access to hard copies of books and materials that are otherwise only available in digital format. And when you take a study break and walk through the library, you may make discoveries of academic information you didn’t expect to find.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">Along your walk you’re also likely to see professional library staff who will probably ask you if they can help you locate materials. And if you ask enough questions, you may have a professional library staff member help you with your research paper.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">A secret among many students is the library’s use as the ideal study location. Here are reasons why many students prefer to study in their college library:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>The academic environment for studying is as good as it gets.</li>\n<li>Almost every student in the library is there to research or study.</li>\n<li>Academic support is immediately available if you want it.</li>\n<li>If you look like you don’t want to be interrupted from study, your friends will respect that — usually.</li>\n<li>You can find a location to hibernate and study, or you can be invisible among a crowd of books.</li>\n<li>Technology is available if you need it.</li>\n<li>If you need a socialization break, you can usually find that opportunity as well.</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Anytime, anywhere, any device:</strong> As a college student and researcher, you have research access options unavailable to researchers decades ago, a time when high-tech research was microfilm and microfiche — miniature photos of research documents projected for reading. Hours available for research were limited, and many research efforts ended with frustration.</p>\n<p class=\"child-para\">Today, you have no limits on research availability. With internet access you can login to your library and download sources — from anywhere. Everyone has 24 hours in a day. Use your hours judiciously.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Unconventional rules of grammar and usage","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Most rules of grammar are common to many college students; other rules of grammar are commonly uncommon to college students. All rules apply to writing research papers and presenting them in class:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong><em>A</em> versus an:</strong> Many college students know that<em> a</em> is used before a word that begins with a consonant such as <em>a student</em>, and <em>an </em>is used before a word that begins with a vowel such as <em>an apple</em>. But many students misunderstand that the use of a and an is dependent on the sound of the words they precede and not the spelling. For example, <em>an honor</em> is correct because <em>honor </em>begins with the sound of the consonant <em>o</em>. Similarly correct are <em>a one-track mind </em>w-sound) and <em>a university </em>(u-sound)<em>.</em></li>\n<li><strong>Cite, sight, and site:</strong> <em>Cite</em>, a verb, means to reference a source. <em>Sight</em>, also a verb, means to locate visually. <em>Site</em>, a noun, means a location. <strong>Examples: </strong><em>Cite</em> sources accurately in your research. Did park rangers <em>sight</em> a bear? The conference<em> site</em> was relocated.</li>\n<li><strong>Possessive case preceding gerund:</strong> Use the possessive case for the word preceding a gerund (an <em>-ing</em> form of a verb such <em>researching,</em> and<em> writing</em>). <strong>Examples:</strong> We celebrated <em>Carli’s</em> graduating from West Chester. You worked hard to earn <em>your </em>acceptance into Ursinus.</li>\n<li><strong>Universal permission code:</strong> As a college student, you have a universal passcode to write the following: end sentences propositions (This is the course I told you <em>about);</em> begin sentences with conjunctions (<em>And</em> now the time has come to graduate); and to sometimes split infinitives (Professors are determined <em>to carefully evaluate</em> each student’s research paper).</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Tips for presenting research papers in the classroom","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>You’ve been presenting topics in the classroom since your first show and tell in first grade. But your college presentations include the challenge of condensing your talk into a short period of time, rather than expanding show and tell into a longer period of time.</p>\n<p>Take a look at these tips for classroom presentations of college research papers:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Organize into major sections.</strong> Organize your talk into the major sections of your paper: introduction, body and supporting evidence, and conclusion.</li>\n<li><strong>Don’t overtext your slides.</strong> If you’re using presentation technology, avoid excessive text on slides. Prefer keywords and applealing visuals.</li>\n<li><strong>Tell short stories.</strong> Tell your presentation as short stories. Don’t read a script. If you’re using notes, list key phrases rather than sentences. Tell stories such as how a reference librarian helped you develop research questions.</li>\n<li><strong>Look at friendly faces.</strong> Look at eyes of students who are receptive to your topic. Limit eye contact with your professor.</li>\n<li><strong>Rehearse for length and pace. </strong>Plan approximate minutes for each of the three major sections of your research paper. Record yourself. If you have a tendency to talk fast, write yourself a note to slow down.</li>\n<li><strong>Plan your first and last sentences. </strong>Plan your first sentence to engage your audience and your last sentence to leave a final message.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Exploring your full-service library","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>In addition to information for your research, your library offers you a wealth of services to support your educational needs. A library staff represents specialized scholars dedicated to helping you reach your research and academic goals.</p>\n<p>Library staff help is as underutilized by college students as professors’ office hours. You’re leaving points on the floor when you research without help of the library that you’re paying for with your tuition. Librarians are usually open 16 hours a day, seven days a week — more hours than your favorite coffee shop.</p>\n<p>Here’s a look at services available at almost all college libraries:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Convenient contact:</strong> Expect your library to offer world-class customer service and convenient contacts including online chatting and texting, question responses, personalized research support, on-demand in-person help, and off-campus instant access — with response immediate or within 24 hours.</li>\n<li><strong>Simplified search access:</strong> Libraries commonly dedicate a few computers (sometimes called card-catalogue computers) to searching and indexing all library content. You can filter searches by books, websites, periodicals, peer-reviewed, media, full-text, publication date, PDF availability, and so forth.</li>\n<li><strong>Skill development:</strong> Your library is also a learning center offering orientations and workshops for research writing, priority databases, technology, searching, and managing sources.</li>\n<li><strong>Study areas:</strong> If you’re looking for a quiet or collaborative study area with the ambience of an award-winning restaurant, reserve a piece of library real estate for studying or reading.</li>\n<li><strong>Audio-visual rooms:</strong> Check out your library’s availability to work with cameras and video equipment in a dedicated space.</li>\n<li><strong>Computer research labs:</strong> A library computer lab can serve as a back-up for your computer or a convenience to research while in the library.</li>\n<li><strong>Tutorials:</strong> Many library databases, search engines, and information platforms offer tutorials for maximizing their use.</li>\n<li><strong>Software:</strong> Many libraries offer software for data analysis, production design, digital display, and research organization. Your reference librarian can tell you what’s available.</li>\n<li><strong>Journals and popular magazines:</strong> Most libraries dedicate space for journals and popular magazines and frequently schedule a journal specialist to help you.</li>\n<li><strong>Books:</strong> Of course, your library has shelves and floors of books, in addition to collections of e-books.</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-07-05T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":299578},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:52:38+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-08-02T14:29:33+00:00","timestamp":"2024-08-02T15:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Writing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"},"slug":"writing","categoryId":33711}],"title":"Self-Publishing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"self-publishing for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"self-publishing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜素发动机系统简化":{"metaDescription":"Always dreamed of adding \"author\" to your resume? Take note of these tips and learn how to self-publish your book.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Turning a great idea into a book through self-publishing is an ambitious project. This Cheat Sheet provides tips to help you develop a positive image as a writer, as well as your own unique style and voice. It also includes information about 20 helpful apps for writers and authors, and advice on how to stay motivated in your writing.","description":"Turning a great idea into a book through self-publishing is an ambitious project. This Cheat Sheet provides tips to help you develop a positive image as a writer, as well as your own unique style and voice. It also includes information about 20 helpful apps for writers and authors, and advice on how to stay motivated in your writing.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":10046,"name":"Jason R. Rich","slug":"jason-r-rich","description":" <b>Jason R. Rich</b> is the bestselling author of more than 32 books, including a few self-published titles. He has also ghostwritten several additional books for business leaders and well-known experts in their field. As a journalist, Jason continues to contribute articles to numerous national magazines and major daily newspapers, and he works as a freelance public relations and marketing consultant for companies in a variety of industries.<br /> Some of Jason&#8217;s recently published books include <i>The Unofficial Guide to Starting a Business Online,</i> 2nd Edition (Wiley); <i>Pampering Your Pooch: Discover What Your Dog Needs, Wants, and Loves</i> (Howell Book House); <i>The Everything Family Travel Guide to Walt Disney World, Universal Studios, and Greater Orlando,</i> 4th Edition (Adams Media); and <i>American Idol Season 4: Official Behind-the-Scenes Fan Book</i> (Prima/Random House). Jason is also writing a series of personal finance guides for Entrepreneur Press, the publishers of <i>Entrepreneur</i> magazine. His most recent self-published book is <i>The Bachelor&#8217;s Guide to Life</i> (iUniverse).","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10046"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33711,"title":"Writing","slug":"writing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":200695,"title":"Choosing the Right Content for Your Self-Published Book","slug":"choosing-the-right-content-for-your-self-published-book","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200695"}},{"articleId":200441,"title":"Earn More Royalties via Self-Publishing","slug":"earn-more-royalties-via-self-publishing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200441"}},{"articleId":199635,"title":"Avoiding Self-Publishing Mistakes","slug":"avoiding-self-publishing-mistakes","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/199635"}},{"articleId":181367,"title":"The Major Steps in the Self-Publishing Process","slug":"the-major-steps-in-the-self-publishing-process","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/181367"}},{"articleId":181368,"title":"Hiring Freelancers for Your Self-Publishing Project","slug":"hiring-freelancers-for-your-self-publishing-project","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/181368"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":299880,"title":"How To Write a College Research Paper","slug":"how-to-write-a-college-research-paper","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299880"}},{"articleId":299854,"title":"How To Succeed in Your College Writing Assignments","slug":"what-to-know-about-writing-in-college","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299854"}},{"articleId":299578,"title":"College Research Papers For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"college-research-papers-for-dummies","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/299578"}},{"articleId":296370,"title":"The Many Benefits of Keeping a Journal","slug":"the-many-benefits-of-keeping-a-journal","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/296370"}},{"articleId":296242,"title":"What Is Reflective Journaling?","slug":"what-is-reflective-journaling","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/296242"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282565,"slug":"self-publishing-for-dummies","isbn":"9781394201273","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1394201273/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1394201273/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1394201273-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1394201273/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1394201273/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/self-publishing-for-dummies-2nd-edition-cover-9781394201273-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Self-Publishing For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b><b data-author-id=\"10046\">Jason R. Rich</b></b> is the bestselling author of more than 32 books, including a few self-published titles. He has also ghostwritten several additional books for business leaders and well-known experts in their field. As a journalist, Jason continues to contribute articles to numerous national magazines and major daily newspapers, and he works as a freelance public relations and marketing consultant for companies in a variety of industries.<br /> Some of Jason&#8217;s recently published books include <i>The Unofficial Guide to Starting a Business Online,</i> 2nd Edition (Wiley); <i>Pampering Your Pooch: Discover What Your Dog Needs, Wants, and Loves</i> (Howell Book House); <i>The Everything Family Travel Guide to Walt Disney World, Universal Studios, and Greater Orlando,</i> 4th Edition (Adams Media); and <i>American Idol Season 4: Official Behind-the-Scenes Fan Book</i> (Prima/Random House). Jason is also writing a series of personal finance guides for Entrepreneur Press, the publishers of <i>Entrepreneur</i> magazine. His most recent self-published book is <i>The Bachelor&#8217;s Guide to Life</i> (iUniverse).</p>","authors":[{"authorId":10046,"name":"Jason R. Rich","slug":"jason-r-rich","description":" <b>Jason R. Rich</b> is the bestselling author of more than 32 books, including a few self-published titles. He has also ghostwritten several additional books for business leaders and well-known experts in their field. As a journalist, Jason continues to contribute articles to numerous national magazines and major daily newspapers, and he works as a freelance public relations and marketing consultant for companies in a variety of industries.<br /> Some of Jason&#8217;s recently published books include <i>The Unofficial Guide to Starting a Business Online,</i> 2nd Edition (Wiley); <i>Pampering Your Pooch: Discover What Your Dog Needs, Wants, and Loves</i> (Howell Book House); <i>The Everything Family Travel Guide to Walt Disney World, Universal Studios, and Greater Orlando,</i> 4th Edition (Adams Media); and <i>American Idol Season 4: Official Behind-the-Scenes Fan Book</i> (Prima/Random House). Jason is also writing a series of personal finance guides for Entrepreneur Press, the publishers of <i>Entrepreneur</i> magazine. His most recent self-published book is <i>The Bachelor&#8217;s Guide to Life</i> (iUniverse).","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/10046"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;writing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394201273&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64ca6faf9955c\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;writing&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394201273&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-64ca6faf99a57\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":181367,"title":"The Major Steps in the Self-Publishing Process","slug":"the-major-steps-in-the-self-publishing-process","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/181367"}},{"articleId":181368,"title":"Hiring Freelancers for Your Self-Publishing Project","slug":"hiring-freelancers-for-your-self-publishing-project","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/181368"}}],"content":[{"title":"How to develop a positive image as a self-published author","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>When you become an author, you want to solidify a positive public and online reputation so that potential readers consider you knowledgeable, trustworthy, and someone they can learn from or be entertained by.</p>\n<p>While you move forward in your writing career, always focus on ways you can create, maintain, and enhance your public image — how you’re perceived. Your image is something you want to plan for and then work toward.</p>\n<p>Think carefully about how you want to be perceived by your (potential) readers, the general public, people in your industry, and  the media. Then, take the steps necessary to live up to the image you create for yourself.</p>\n<p>Whether you’re a fiction or non-fiction author, or plan to expand your writing career by pursuing other opportunities in publishing, you always need to be focusing on these things:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Enhancing your skills and scope as a writer by</li>\n<li>Establishing and maintaining your reputation as a credible author</li>\n<li>Defining and adhering to your unique voice and writing style</li>\n<li>Discovering new opportunities to write more books or further your writing career</li>\n<li>Using your writing to attract new readers to continuously expand your audience</li>\n<li>Continuously promoting yourself and your book(s) by</li>\n<li>Interacting with your readers and fans through social media, in-person appearances, and media interviews.</li>\n<li>Participating in other events that allow you to promote yourself and your work.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Knowing you need to create and maintain a positive reputation, think carefully about things you say and do in public, especially on social media.</p>\n<p>In today’s <em>cancel culture</em> (where people are aggressive about dismissing others), it’s easy to be misunderstood or to accidently insult someone by making an arbitrary comment or posting something online before you think about the impact of what you say or do.</p>\n"},{"title":"How to develop a unique author voice and writing style","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Some bestselling authors, writers, and poets have a writing style anyone can identify after reading just a few sentences or paragraphs of their work. As an author, your goal should be to establish your own voice and writing style in a way that appeals to your target audience.</p>\n<p>When it comes to developing <em>your</em> unique voice as a writer, focus on these five strategies:</p>\n<ol>\n<li><strong>Define your point-of-view (perspective) and determine how you will present information to your readers. </strong>Whether you write a fictional story, autobiography, or another type of non-fiction book, your perspective matters. What you have to say and then how you say it are two things that help define you as a good (or not-so-good) writer/author.</li>\n<li><strong>After you choose a voice<span style=\"font-weight: normal !msorm;\"> (perspective and presentation)</span>, stick to it.</strong> Just like everyone has a unique fingerprint, voice, and handwriting, the same is true when it comes to their voice as a writer. The tone of your writing can either draw readers it or turn them against you and your work.</li>\n<li><strong>Target your intended audience.</strong> Pay attention to your word choice and sentence structure, always making sure how you write (as well as what you write) will be appealing and understandable to your target audience. Then, you can work toward enhancing your writing skills to expand your allure to a broader audience.</li>\n<li><strong>Concentrate on flow and organization.</strong> If you’re writing fiction, have the proper balance between descriptive text and dialogue so that your story flows nicely and sparks the reader’s imagination and attention. If you’re writing non-fiction, focus on the organization of your book (this is essential), making sure that each chapter flows nicely into the next and that the reader can expand their knowledge of the topic you cover as they work their way through your book.</li>\n<li><strong>Practice writing.</strong> To become a good writer, taking courses can help develop your core skillset, but you need to <em>practice writing</em>. Developing your voice and writing style takes time and, you guessed it, practice. Don’t be afraid to experiment and then go back and fine-tune your work before it gets published.</li>\n</ol>\n"},{"title":"Mobile apps for writers and authors","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Although you’ll probably do most of your writing on a desktop or laptop computer, you can find a wide range of mobile apps (especially for tablets) that you can use to help you brainstorm and organize ideas, create outlines, or manage to-do lists pertaining to your self-publishing project.</p>\n<p>You may need to pay an ongoing subscription fee to use some of these apps, or for any in-app purchases, you may need to pay to unlock features or functions within the app. These fees should be listed on the description page for the app, under the “In-App Purchases” heading.</p>\n<p>For a writer or author, here are 20 popular and versatile mobile apps worth looking into:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Any.do To-Do List &amp; Planner </strong>(Free with in-app purchases): A comprehensive to-do list manager and organizational tool that has an integrated calendar and reminders option. It’s great for project management.</li>\n<li><strong>Calm </strong>(Free with in-app subscription purchases): This is a comprehensive app that teaches meditation and relaxation techniques that you can practice anywhere and anytime. It’s a great tool for clearing your mind before a writing session. It can also be used to help you focus better or overcome writer’s block by helping you to relax.</li>\n<li><strong>Daily Prompt</strong> (Free with optional in-app purchases): Provides writing prompts for stories and novels.</li>\n<li><strong>Drafts</strong> (Free with in-app subscription purchases): Use this as a notetaking, information gathering, to-do list management, and/or brainstorming tool. It even offers a verbal dictation feature. Never forget or lose track of a great idea again.</li>\n<li><strong>Evernote </strong>(Free with in-app subscription purchases): A notetaking and information gathering and management application that’s available for all smartphones, tablets, and computers.</li>\n<li><strong>Freeform </strong>(Free; iPad only): A virtual whiteboard brainstorming tool that allows you to organize and display text, graphics, photos, and other content.</li>\n<li><strong>Good Notes </strong>(Free trial; $9.99 purchase price): A full-featured notetaking app that allows you to handwrite or draw on a tablet’s screen and/or markup PDF files.</li>\n<li><strong>JotterPad </strong>(Free with in-app purchases): A word processing app with integrated features for novelists. Includes templates as well as tools for planning, writing, and publishing your work.</li>\n<li><strong>Microsoft OneNote </strong>(Free): A notetaking and information management app available for smartphones, tablets, and computers.</li>\n<li><strong>Microsoft To-Do </strong>(Free): A customizable to-do list creator and manager that allows you to create any number of lists, and then manage each separately. It’s an easy-to-use project management tool.</li>\n<li><strong>Microsoft Whiteboard</strong> (Free): A virtual whiteboard brainstorming tool that works on all smartphones and tablets.</li>\n<li><strong>MindNode </strong>(Free with in-app purchases): A powerful mind mapping and brainstorming tool.</li>\n<li><strong>Moleskine Notes </strong>(Free): Transform your mobile device into one or more virtual notebooks where you can type, handwrite, draw, or import content on each page. Notes can be exported into Microsoft Word documents or PDF files, for example.</li>\n<li><strong>Notability (</strong>Free with in-app subscription purchases): A full-featured notetaking app that allows you to handwrite or draw on a tablet’s screen and annotate PDF files.</li>\n<li><strong>Post-It</strong> (Free): Create and display customized and multi-colored virtual Post-It notes on your tablet’s screen. This is a great tool for brainstorming and organizing information.</li>\n<li><strong>ScannerPro </strong>(Free with in-app purchases): Transforms your smartphone or tablet into a handheld scanner using the rear-facing camera on your mobile device. Scanned documents can be edited, stored, and shared locally or in the cloud. This is a great tool for capturing and organizing research information, for example.</li>\n<li><strong>Scrivener </strong>($24): A full-featured word processor designed for authors who work on a tablet. A computer version is also available.</li>\n<li><strong>Trello</strong> (Free): A project management tool that works with smartphones, tablets, and computers. It can also be used to collaborate with other people.</li>\n<li><strong>Ulysses Writing App</strong> (Free with in-app purchases): A comprehensive word processor — specifically for writers — that’s designed for use on smartphones, tablets, and computers. It has an integrated proofreader and other useful features that writers and authors appreciate.</li>\n<li><strong>Zinnia (</strong>Free with in-app subscription purchases): A highly customizable agenda and planning app.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"How to stay motivated as a self-published author","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>One of the perks and drawbacks to self-publishing your book is that you’re your own boss; therefore, no one breathes down your neck if you lose focus, fall behind in writing your manuscript, or miss an important deadline.</p>\n<p>Some people can get overwhelmed when they’re faced with having to accomplish tasks that they’re not comfortable doing.</p>\n<p>If you’re one of these people, determine in advance how you deal with difficult problems or situations. For example, if you have trouble sitting in front of your computer to write your book’s manuscript because you keep getting distracted by the phone ringing, the dog barking, or your baby crying, you need to take active steps to eliminate those distractions.</p>\n<p>If you don’t have a clue about marketing and advertising, consider hiring someone who has this expertise as a freelance consultant.</p>\n<p>Stay motivated! As a writer and publisher, discover what motivates you, and do what you need to so that you can ensure, throughout the entire self-publishing process, you accomplish each task in a professional and timely way. Your overall objective is to produce the best book for your readers. Ponder these questions to help you determine what motivates you:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Why are you writing the book and what do you hope to accomplish with it?</li>\n<li>Are you writing the book to establish yourself as an expert in your field and generate higher revenues as a paid consultant?</li>\n<li>Are you looking to communicate specific knowledge that you possess to a group of interested readers?</li>\n<li>What do you hope to gain from the experience and investment of your time, effort, and money?</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Don&#8217;t be afraid to reward yourself for achieving specific daily, weekly, or monthly goals. Make a point to keep reviewing your progress to ensure that you’re staying on track throughout the entire publishing process.</p>\n<p>Rewards can include time out of your schedule, such as a night out with friends, a one-hour break to watch TV, or a run to Starbucks.</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five 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brief","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>No matter what technical writing responsibilities you have, this Technical Writing Brief is the first step in the writing process.</p>\n<p>Feel free to make a copy of this brief as you work on each new project. With just a little practice, it will help you write with confidence and competence, as well as save lots of time and frustration.</p>\n<p>Many participants in the technical writing workshops I facilitate start by saying, “I don’t have time to fill out this out.” After working with it they say, “I don’t know how I ever got along without it.” Share it with your team; they’ll thank you!</p>\n<h3>About the Document</h3>\n<ul>\n<li>Type of document</li>\n<li>Presentation context (Paper? Online? Streaming? Simulation? Combination?)</li>\n<li>Target date for completion</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>Learner Profile</h3>\n<ul>\n<li>Who are the learners?</li>\n<li>Are they technical, nontechnical, or a combination?</li>\n<li>Are they internal (to your company), external, or both?</li>\n<li>Do you have multi-level learners?</li>\n<li>If so, what percentage are there of each?</li>\n<li>What do the learners <em>need </em>to know about the topic?</li>\n<li>What’s their level of the subject knowledge, if any?</li>\n<li>How do they process information?</li>\n<li>What jobs do they perform?</li>\n<li>What is their attitude toward the topic? (Positive? Neutral? Negative?)</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>Key Issues</h3>\n<p>What are the key issues to convey? (In order of importance.)</p>\n<ul>\n<li>_____________________________________</li>\n<li>_____________________________________</li>\n<li>_____________________________________</li>\n<li>_____________________________________</li>\n<li>_____________________________________</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>Budget</h3>\n<p>______________________________________</p>\n<h3>Project Team</h3>\n<p>Who’s who on the project team?</p>\n<p>___________________________________________</p>\n<p>___________________________________________</p>\n<p>___________________________________________</p>\n<p>___________________________________________</p>\n<p>___________________________________________</p>\n<h3>Milestones</h3>\n<p>Describe the milestones and list the anticipated completion dates.</p>\n<p>Milestone                                  Date</p>\n<p>__________________________________________</p>\n<p>__________________________________________</p>\n<p>__________________________________________</p>\n<p>__________________________________________</p>\n<h3>Approval Cycle</h3>\n<p>What’s the approval cycle? (Start from the bottom up, with A being final reviewer.)</p>\n<ul>\n<li>___________________________________________</li>\n<li>___________________________________________</li>\n<li>___________________________________________</li>\n<li>___________________________________________</li>\n<li>___________________________________________</li>\n</ul>\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Keep this handy. This a handy reference to keep on your computer, tablet, and smartphone. And remember to share it with your team!</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-06-02T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":208733},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T21:26:30+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-04-17T19:01:05+00:00","timestamp":"2024-04-17T21:01:03+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Writing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"},"slug":"writing","categoryId":33711}],"title":"Creating Compelling Characters in Writing","strippedTitle":"creating compelling characters in writing","slug":"how-to-create-compelling-characters-in-fictional-writing","canonicalUrl":"","搜素发动机系统简化":{"metaDescription":"Believable, authentic characters are crucial to great stories and novels. Fictional characters should have the depth and power to inspire varied emotions such a","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Believable, authentic characters are crucial to great stories and novels. Fictional characters should have the depth and power to inspire varied emotions such as love, hate and fear in a reader.\r\n\r\nThere are a number of ways you can go about creating characters. When writing fiction, you can often use a real-life person as a basis for a character, then change and adapt the person’s characteristics for the story you’re writing.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Think about the people closest to you and try to summarise their personalities. To get those creative juices flowing, you could try creating personalities for strangers you see on the street. Imagine what they do, what their interests are, what their life has been like.</p>\r\nAlternatively, you may find that a character simply comes to you seemingly from nowhere. This could happen because you’re tapping into the unknown aspects of your personality. Sometimes you may need to create a character from scratch to fill a particular function in your writing. This can be a lengthy process – you’ll have to think about every aspect of his behaviour, personality and appearance to create a believable character.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >How does your fictional character look physically?</h2>\r\nHow your character looks can reveal a lot about their personality to the reader: people make snap judgements about people within a few seconds of seeing them. Think about what you want your character to represent through his or her appearance. You can make minor characters more memorable by giving them distinctive physical traits which readers will remember.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >What are your character's thoughts?</h2>\r\nIt’s important for the reader to feel that they can share the character’s thoughts and feelings. Inner emotions can be brought out through expressions, intonation, body language. Try keeping a diary for your character. Think about what his writing style would be like, and whether he would reveal his innermost thoughts.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >What actions and deeds are typical of your character?</h2>\r\nPersonality can also be brought out through actions. Think about how your character moves and behaves when alone and when in company. Is he naturally introspective or an extrovert? Write about how you character would go about an everyday activity, such as making a cup of tea: this can be much more revealing than you would first imagine.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >How does your character talk?</h2>\r\nDialogue is one of the main ways you can directly reveal character, particularly if you’re writing about someone in the third person rather than from the inside. Imagine your character meets another character – write down their conversation. Consider how your character speaks, what his accent is like, how talkative he is.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Does your character's name matter?</h2>\r\nAnother key thing to consider is your character’s name: this will instinctively reveal something about the character and will create a first impression on the reader. As a general rule, you should avoid stereotypical characters. Often, such characters are one-dimensional and will not be particularly interesting for the reader.","description":"Believable, authentic characters are crucial to great stories and novels. Fictional characters should have the depth and power to inspire varied emotions such as love, hate and fear in a reader.\r\n\r\nThere are a number of ways you can go about creating characters. When writing fiction, you can often use a real-life person as a basis for a character, then change and adapt the person’s characteristics for the story you’re writing.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">Think about the people closest to you and try to summarise their personalities. To get those creative juices flowing, you could try creating personalities for strangers you see on the street. Imagine what they do, what their interests are, what their life has been like.</p>\r\nAlternatively, you may find that a character simply comes to you seemingly from nowhere. This could happen because you’re tapping into the unknown aspects of your personality. Sometimes you may need to create a character from scratch to fill a particular function in your writing. This can be a lengthy process – you’ll have to think about every aspect of his behaviour, personality and appearance to create a believable character.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >How does your fictional character look physically?</h2>\r\nHow your character looks can reveal a lot about their personality to the reader: people make snap judgements about people within a few seconds of seeing them. Think about what you want your character to represent through his or her appearance. You can make minor characters more memorable by giving them distinctive physical traits which readers will remember.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >What are your character's thoughts?</h2>\r\nIt’s important for the reader to feel that they can share the character’s thoughts and feelings. Inner emotions can be brought out through expressions, intonation, body language. Try keeping a diary for your character. Think about what his writing style would be like, and whether he would reveal his innermost thoughts.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >What actions and deeds are typical of your character?</h2>\r\nPersonality can also be brought out through actions. Think about how your character moves and behaves when alone and when in company. Is he naturally introspective or an extrovert? Write about how you character would go about an everyday activity, such as making a cup of tea: this can be much more revealing than you would first imagine.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >How does your character talk?</h2>\r\nDialogue is one of the main ways you can directly reveal character, particularly if you’re writing about someone in the third person rather than from the inside. Imagine your character meets another character – write down their conversation. Consider how your character speaks, what his accent is like, how talkative he is.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab5\" >Does your character's name matter?</h2>\r\nAnother key thing to consider is your character’s name: this will instinctively reveal something about the character and will create a first impression on the reader. As a general rule, you should avoid stereotypical characters. Often, such characters are one-dimensional and will not be particularly interesting for the reader.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9390,"name":"Maggie Hamand","slug":"maggie-hamand","description":" <p><b>Maggie Hamand</b> is a novelist, non&#45;fiction author and journalist. In 1998, Maggie founded the hugely successful <i>Complete Creative Writing Course</i> at the Groucho Club in London, and has been teaching there since: her students have included many published authors. She is the author of two novels, <i>The Resurrection of the Body</i> and <i>The Rocket Man</i>. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9390"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33711,"title":"Writing","slug":"writing","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33711"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"How does your fictional character look physically?","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"What are your character's thoughts?","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"What actions and deeds are typical of your character?","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"How does your character talk?","target":"#tab4"},{"label":"Does your character's name matter?","target":"#tab5"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":194565,"title":"Rewriting and Editing Your Creative Writing Project","slug":"rewriting-and-editing-your-creative-writing-project","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194565"}},{"articleId":194566,"title":"Before You Begin Your Creative Writing","slug":"before-you-begin-your-creative-writing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194566"}},{"articleId":194554,"title":"Writing Your First Draft","slug":"writing-your-first-draft","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194554"}},{"articleId":194555,"title":"How to Generate Creative Writing Ideas","slug":"how-to-generate-creative-writing-ideas","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194555"}},{"articleId":194550,"title":"Ways to Develop and Improve Your Creative Writing","slug":"ways-to-develop-and-improve-your-creative-writing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194550"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":296370,"title":"The Many Benefits of Keeping a Journal","slug":"the-many-benefits-of-keeping-a-journal","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/296370"}},{"articleId":296242,"title":"What Is Reflective Journaling?","slug":"what-is-reflective-journaling","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/296242"}},{"articleId":296124,"title":"Journaling By Hand vs. Computer","slug":"is-it-better-to-journal-on-paper-or-a-computer","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/296124"}},{"articleId":295412,"title":"Journaling For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"journaling-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/295412"}},{"articleId":294700,"title":"College Writing For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"college-writing-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/294700"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":281562,"slug":"creative-writing-for-dummies-uk-edition","isbn":"9780470742914","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","writing"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/0470742917/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/0470742917/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/0470742917-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0470742917/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/0470742917/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/creative-writing-for-dummies-uk-edition-cover-9780470742914-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Creative Writing For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":false,"authorsInfo":"<p><b data-author-id=\"9390\">Maggie Hamand</b> is a novelist, non-fiction author and journalist. 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