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{"appState":{"pageLoadApiCallsStatus":true},"categoryState":{"relatedCategories":{"headers":{"timestamp":"2025-01-30T08:01:10+00:00"},"categoryId":33662,"data":{"title":"Academics & The Arts","slug":"academics-the-arts","image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/academics-and-arts-category.jpg","width":643,"height":1286},"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662}],"parentCategory":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"childCategories":[{"categoryId":33663,"title":"Art & Architecture","slug":"art-architecture","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33663"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-2.fabfbd5c.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":162,"bookCount":9},{"categoryId":33670,"title":"History","slug":"history","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33670"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-1.daf74cf0.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":375,"bookCount":32},{"categoryId":33686,"title":"Humanities","slug":"humanities","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33686"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-2.fabfbd5c.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":20,"bookCount":2},{"categoryId":33687,"title":"Language & Language Arts","slug":"language-language-arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-1.daf74cf0.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":1157,"bookCount":90},{"categoryId":33712,"title":"Law","slug":"law","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33712"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-2.fabfbd5c.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":50,"bookCount":8},{"categoryId":33720,"title":"Math","slug":"math","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33720"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-1.daf74cf0.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":1583,"bookCount":49},{"categoryId":33730,"title":"Music","slug":"music","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33730"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-2.fabfbd5c.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":1654,"bookCount":37},{"categoryId":33747,"title":"Performing Arts","slug":"performing-arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33747"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-1.daf74cf0.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":102,"bookCount":9},{"categoryId":33751,"title":"Political Science","slug":"political-science","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33751"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-2.fabfbd5c.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":97,"bookCount":9},{"categoryId":33756,"title":"Science","slug":"science","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33756"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-1.daf74cf0.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":1483,"bookCount":57},{"categoryId":33772,"title":"Study Skills & Test Prep","slug":"study-skills-test-prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-2.fabfbd5c.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":1727,"bookCount":62},{"categoryId":33800,"title":"Teaching","slug":"teaching","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33800"},"image":{"src":"/img/background-image-1.daf74cf0.png","width":0,"height":0},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":167,"bookCount":9}],"description":"Maybe you need help passing calculus ― or the real estate exam. You're looking to move up at work or school. Or maybe you're done with school, but you want to learn Spanish or acting or songwriting. It's all here. Dive in!","relatedArticles":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles?category=33662&offset=0&size=5"},"hasArticle":true,"hasBook":true,"articleCount":8580,"bookCount":373},"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"}},"relatedCategoriesLoadedStatus":"success"},"listState":{"list":{"count":10,"total":8613,"items":[{"headers":{"creationTime":"2021-10-27T21:31:33+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-12-20T21:13:11+00:00","timestamp":"2024-12-21T00:01:13+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Study Skills & Test Prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"slug":"study-skills-test-prep","categoryId":33772},{"name":"CCSP","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34392"},"slug":"ccsp","categoryId":34392}],"title":"CCSP: Data Security Technologies and Strategies","strippedTitle":"ccsp: data security technologies and strategies","slug":"ccsp-data-security-technologies-and-strategies","canonicalUrl":"","搜所领头羊提升":{"metaDescription":"When studying for the CCSP exam, consider how to implement data security technologies and design data security strategies.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"When studying for the <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/study-skills-test-prep/ccsp/ccsp-for-dummies-cheat-sheet-273450/\">CCSP exam</a>, you must consider how to implement data security technologies and design data security strategies that fit your business and security needs. The following technologies are commonly applied as part of a comprehensive data security strategy in the cloud:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Encryption and key management</li>\r\n \t<li>Hashing</li>\r\n \t<li>Data loss prevention (DLP)</li>\r\n \t<li>Data de-identification (by masking and data obfuscation)</li>\r\n \t<li>Tokenization</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Encryption and key management</h2>\r\nAs encryption pertains to cloud data security, encryption and key management are critical topics that must be fully understood in order to pass the CCSP exam. With resource pooling (and multitenancy) being a key characteristic of cloud computing, it’s important to remember that physical separation and protections are not commonly available in cloud environments. As such, strategic use of encryption is crucial to ensuring secure data storage and use in the cloud.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">When designing or implementing encryption technologies, remember that an encryption architecture has three basic components:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The data being secured</li>\r\n \t<li>The encryption engine that performs all encryption operations</li>\r\n \t<li>The encryption keys used to secure the data</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nWhile it would seem like encrypting everything would be the best way to ensure data security, it’s important to consider that encryption has a performance impact on systems; system resources are used in order to process encryption algorithms every time data is encrypted or decrypted, which can add up if encryption is used excessively. As a CCSP, it is up to you to implement encryption so that data is as secure as possible while minimizing the impact to system performance.\r\n\r\nCountless other challenges and considerations exist when implementing encryption technologies, both on-prem and in cloud environments. Some key cloud encryption challenges are\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Almost all data processing requires that data is in an unencrypted state. If a cloud customer is using a CSP for data analysis or processing, then encryption can be challenging to implement.</li>\r\n \t<li>Encryption keys are cached in memory when in use and often stay there for some time. This consideration is a major point of in multitenant environments because memory is a shared resource between tenants. CSPs must implement protections against tenants’ keys being accessed by tenants who share the same resources.</li>\r\n \t<li>Cloud data is often highly replicated (for availability purposes), which can make encryption and key managing challenging. Most CSPs have mechanisms in place to ensure that any copies of encrypted data remain encrypted.</li>\r\n \t<li>Throughout the entire data lifecycle, data can change states, locations, and format, which can require different applications of encryption along the way. Managing these changes may be a challenge, but understanding the Cloud Secure Data Lifecycle can help design complete end-to-end encryption solutions.</li>\r\n \t<li>Encryption is a confidentiality control at heart. It does not address threats to integrity of data on its own. Other technologies discussed throughout this chapter should be implemented to address integrity concerns.</li>\r\n \t<li>The effectiveness of an encryption solution is dependent upon how securely the encryption keys are stored and managed. As soon as an encryption key gets into the wrong hands, all data protected with that key is compromised. Keys that are managed by the CSP may potentially be accessed by malicious insiders, while customer-managed encryption keys are often mishandled or mismanaged.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAs the last point indicates, key management is a huge factor in ensuring that encryption implementations effectively secure cloud data. Because of its importance and the challenges associated with key management in the cloud, this task is typically one of the most complicated ones associated with securing cloud data.\r\n\r\nWhen developing your organization’s encryption and key management strategy, it’s important that you consider the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Key generation:</strong> <span class=\"NormalTextRun SCXW172544049 BCX0\" data-ccp-parastyle=\"Bullet\">Encryption keys should be generated within a trusted, secure cryptographic module. FIPS 140-</span><span class=\"NormalTextRun SCXW172544049 BCX0\" data-ccp-parastyle=\"Bullet\">3 </span><span class=\"NormalTextRun SCXW172544049 BCX0\" data-ccp-parastyle=\"Bullet\">validated modules have been tested and certified to meet certain requirements that </span><span class=\"NormalTextRun SCXW172544049 BCX0\" data-ccp-parastyle=\"Bullet\">demonstrate</span><span class=\"NormalTextRun SCXW172544049 BCX0\" data-ccp-parastyle=\"Bullet\"> tamper resistance and integrity of encryption keys.</span></li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Key distribution:</strong> It’s important that encryption keys are distributed securely to prevent theft or compromise during transit. One best practice is to encrypt keys with a separate encryption key while distributing to other parties (in PKI applications, for example). The worst thing that could happen is sending out a bunch of “secret” keys that get stolen by malicious eavesdroppers!</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Key storage:</strong> Encryption keys must be protected at rest (both in volatile and persistent memory) and should never be stored in plaintext. Keys may be stored and managed internally on a virtual machine or other integrated application, externally and separate from the data itself, or managed by a trusted third party that provides key escrow services for secure key management. A <em>Hardware Security Module </em>(HSM) is a physical device that safeguards encryption keys. Many cloud providers provide HSM services, as well as software-based HSM capabilities.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Key destruction or deletion:</strong> At the end of the encryption key’s lifecycle, there will be a time that the key is no longer needed. <em>Key destruction</em> is the removal of an encryption key from its operational location. <em>Key deletion</em> takes it a step further and also removes any information that could be used to reconstruct that key. To prevent a Denial of Service due to unavailable keys, deletion should only occur after an archival period that includes substantial analysis to ensure that the key is in fact no longer needed.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Cloud environments rely heavily on encryption throughout the entire data lifecycle. While encryption itself is used for confidentiality, the widespread use of encryption means that availability of the encryption keys themselves is a major concern. Pay close attention to availability as you’re designing your key management systems and processes.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Hashing</h2>\r\n<em>Hashing</em>, as depicted, is the process of taking an arbitrary piece of data and generating a unique string or number of fixed-length from it. Hashing can be applied to any type of data — documents, images, database files, virtual machines, and more.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_274158\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-274158\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/ccsp-hashing.jpg\" alt=\"Hashing.\" width=\"556\" height=\"284\" /> Hashing.[/caption]\r\n\r\nHashing in a data structure provides a mechanism to ensure the integrity of data. Hashes are similar to human fingerprints, which can be used to uniquely identify a single person to whom that fingerprint belongs. As seen, even the slightest change to a large text file will noticeably change the output of the hashing algorithm. Hashing is incredibly useful when you want to be sure that what you’re looking at now is the same as what you created before. In cloud environments, hashing helps verify that virtual machine instances haven’t been modified (maliciously or accidentally) without your knowledge. Simply hash your VM image before running it and compare it to the hash of the known-good VM image; the hash outputs should be identical.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">The term hashing is sometimes used interchangeably with encryption, but they are very different! Encryption is a two-way function, meaning what can be encrypted can be decrypted. Conversely, hashing is a one-way function. You can only generate a hash of an object; you cannot retrieve an object from its hash. Encryption, again, is used to provide confidentiality, while hashing provides integrity checking. Be careful not to confuse these two terms!</p>\r\nSeveral hashing algorithms are available, but the SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) family of algorithms are amongst the most popular. Specific algorithms are outside the scope of this book, but you can research SHA-1, SHA-2, and SHA-3 for additional context.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Data Loss Prevention (DLP)</h2>\r\n<em>Data loss prevention </em>(DLP), also known as data leakage prevention, is the set of technologies and practices used to identify and classify sensitive data, while ensuring that sensitive data is not lost or accessed by unauthorized parties.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_274157\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-274157\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/ccsp-data-loss-prevention.jpg\" alt=\"Data Loss Prevention (DLP).\" width=\"556\" height=\"88\" /> Data Loss Prevention (DLP).[/caption]\r\n\r\nDLP can be applied to help restrict the flow of both structured and unstructured data to authorized locations and users. Effective use of DLP goes a long way to helping organizations safeguard their data’s confidentiality, both on-prem and in the cloud. To put it plainly, DLP analyzes data storage, identifies sensitive data components, and prevents users from accidentally or maliciously sending that sensitive data to the wrong party.\r\n\r\nWhen designing a DLP strategy, organizations must consider how the technology fits in with their existing technologies, processes, and architecture. DLP controls need to be thoroughly understood and applied in a manner that aligns with the organization’s overall enterprise architecture in order to ensure that only the right type of data is blocked from being transmitted.\r\n\r\nHybrid cloud users, or users that utilize a combination of cloud-based and on-prem services, should pay extremely close attention to their enterprise security architecture while developing a DLP strategy. Because data traverses both cloud and noncloud environments, a poor DLP implementation can result in segmented data security policies that are hard to manage and ineffective.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">DLP that is incorrectly implemented can lead to false-positives (for example, blocking legitimate traffic) or false-negatives (allowing sensitive data to be sent to unauthorized parties).</p>\r\nDLP implementations consist of three core components or stages:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Discovery and classification:</strong> The first stage of DLP is discovery and classification. <em>Discovery</em> is the process of finding all instances of data, and <em>classification</em> is the act of categorizing that data based on its sensitivity and other characteristics. Examples of classifications may include “credit card data,” “Social Security numbers,” “health records,” and so on. Comprehensive discovery and proper classification is crucial to success during the remaining DLP stages.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Monitoring:</strong> After data has been fully discovered and classified, it is able to be monitored. Monitoring is an essential component of the DLP implementation and involves watching data as it moves throughout the cloud data lifecycle. The monitoring stage is where the DLP implementation is looking to identify data that is being misused or handled outside of established usage policies. Effective DLP monitoring should happen on storage devices, networking devices, servers, workstations, and other endpoints — and it should evaluate traffic across all potential export routes (email, Internet browsers, and so on).</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Enforcement:</strong> The final DLP stage, enforcement, is where action is taken on policy violations identified during the monitoring stage. These actions are configured based on the classification of data and the potential impact of its loss. Violations of less sensitive data is traditionally logged and/or alerted on, while more sensitive data can actually be blocked from unauthorized exposure or loss. A common use-case here is financial services companies that detect credit card numbers being emailed to unauthorized domains and are able to stop the email in its tracks, before it ever leaves the corporate network.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAlways remember “Security follows the data” — and DLP technology is no different. When creating a DLP implementation strategy, it’s important that you consider techniques for monitoring activity in every data state. DLP data states are\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>DLP at rest:</strong> For data at rest, the DLP implementation is stored wherever the data is stored, such as a workstation, file server, or some other form of storage system. Although this DLP implementation is often the simplest, it may need to work in conjunction with other DLP implementations to be most effective.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>DLP in transit:</strong> <em>Network-based DLP</em> is data loss prevention that involves monitoring outbound traffic near the network perimeter. This DLP implementation monitors traffic over Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and other protocols.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">If the network traffic being monitored is encrypted, you will need to integrate encryption and key management technologies into your DLP solution. Standard DLP implementations cannot effectively monitor encrypted traffic, such as HTTPS.</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>DLP in use:</strong> <em>Host-based,</em> or <em>endpoint-based, DLP</em> is data loss prevention that involves installation of a DLP application on a workstation or other endpoint device. This DLP implementation allows monitoring of all data in use on the client device and provides insights that network-based DLP are not able to provide.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Because of the massive scale of many cloud environments, host-based DLP can be a major challenge. There are simply too many hosts and endpoints to monitor without a sophisticated strategy that involves automated deployment. Despite this challenge, host-based DLP is not impossible in the cloud, and CSPs continue to make monitoring easier as new cloud-native DLP features become available.</p>\r\nAfter you understand DLP and how it can be used to protect cloud data, there are a few considerations that cloud security professionals commonly face when implementing cloud-based DLP:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Cloud data is highly distributed and replicated across locations. Data can move between servers, from one data center to another, to and from backup storage, or between a customer and the cloud provider. This movement, along with the data replication that ensures availability, present challenges that need to be worked through in a DLP strategy.</li>\r\n \t<li>DLP technologies can impact performance. Host-based DLP scan all data access activities on an endpoint, and network-based DLP scan all outbound network traffic across a network boundary. This constant monitoring and scanning can impact system and network performance and must be considered while developing and testing your DLP strategy.</li>\r\n \t<li>Cloud-based DLP can get expensive. The pay-for-what-you-use model is often a great savings to cloud customers, but when it comes to DLP, the constant resource utilization associated with monitoring traffic can quickly add up. It’s important to model and plan for resource consumption costs on top of the costs of the DLP solution itself.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Data de-identification</h2>\r\nConfidentiality is incredibly important, especially in the cloud. While mechanisms like encryption and DLP go a long way to providing data confidentiality, they’re not always feasible. <em>Data de-identification</em> (or <em>anonymization</em>) is the process of removing information that can be used to identify a specific individual from a dataset. This technique is commonly used as a privacy measure to protect Personally Identifiable Information (PII) or other sensitive information from being exposed when an entire dataset is shared. The following figure depicts the purest form of data de-identification; in this example, student names have been removed in order to protect the confidentiality of their grades.\r\n\r\nSeveral techniques are available to de-identify sensitive information; masking (or obfuscation) and tokenization are two of the most commonly used methods.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_274156\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-274156\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/ccsp-data-de-identification.jpg\" alt=\"Data de-identification.\" width=\"556\" height=\"158\" /> Data de-identification.[/caption]\r\n<h3>Masking</h3>\r\n<em>Masking</em> is the process of partially or completely replacing sensitive data with random characters or other nonsensitive data. Masking, or <em>obfuscation, </em>can happen in a number of ways, but the following figure is a visual depiction of the most popular type of data masking, which is commonly used to protect credit card numbers and other sensitive financial information.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_274155\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-274155\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/ccsp-data-masking.jpg\" alt=\"Data masking.\" width=\"556\" height=\"205\" /> Data masking.[/caption]\r\n\r\nAs a cloud security professional, you can use several techniques when masking or obfuscating data. Here are a few to remember:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Substitution:</strong> <em>Substitution</em> mimics the look of real data, but replaces (or appends) it with some unrelated value. Substitution can either be random or algorithmic, with the latter allowing two-way substitution — meaning if you have the algorithm, then you can retrieve the original data from the masked dataset.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Scrambling:</strong> <em>Scrambling</em> mimics the look of real data, but simply jumbles the characters into a random order. For example, a customer’s whose account number is #5551234 may be shown as #1552435 in a development environment. (For what it’s worth, my scrambled phone number is 0926381135.)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Deletion or nulling:</strong> This technique is just what it sounds like. When using this masking technique, data appears blank or empty to anyone who isn’t authorized to view it.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAside from being used to comply with regulatory regulations (like HIPAA or PCI DSS), data masking is often used when organizations need to use production data in a test or development environment. By masking the data, development environments are able to use real data without exposing sensitive data elements to unauthorized viewers or less secure environments.\r\n<h3>Tokenization</h3>\r\n<em>Tokenization</em> is the process of substituting a sensitive piece of data with a nonsensitive replacement, called a <em>token.</em> The token is merely a reference back to the sensitive data, but has no meaning or sensitivity on its own. The token maintains the look and feel of the original data and is mapped back to the original data by the tokenization engine or application. Tokenization allows code to continue to run seamlessly, even with randomized tokens in place of sensitive data.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\"><em>Tokenization</em> can be outsourced to external, cloud-based tokenization services (referred to as tokenization-as-a-service). When using these services, it’s prudent to understand how the provider secures your data both at rest and in transit between you and their systems.</p>","description":"When studying for the <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/study-skills-test-prep/ccsp/ccsp-for-dummies-cheat-sheet-273450/\">CCSP exam</a>, you must consider how to implement data security technologies and design data security strategies that fit your business and security needs. The following technologies are commonly applied as part of a comprehensive data security strategy in the cloud:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Encryption and key management</li>\r\n \t<li>Hashing</li>\r\n \t<li>Data loss prevention (DLP)</li>\r\n \t<li>Data de-identification (by masking and data obfuscation)</li>\r\n \t<li>Tokenization</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Encryption and key management</h2>\r\nAs encryption pertains to cloud data security, encryption and key management are critical topics that must be fully understood in order to pass the CCSP exam. With resource pooling (and multitenancy) being a key characteristic of cloud computing, it’s important to remember that physical separation and protections are not commonly available in cloud environments. As such, strategic use of encryption is crucial to ensuring secure data storage and use in the cloud.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">When designing or implementing encryption technologies, remember that an encryption architecture has three basic components:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>The data being secured</li>\r\n \t<li>The encryption engine that performs all encryption operations</li>\r\n \t<li>The encryption keys used to secure the data</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nWhile it would seem like encrypting everything would be the best way to ensure data security, it’s important to consider that encryption has a performance impact on systems; system resources are used in order to process encryption algorithms every time data is encrypted or decrypted, which can add up if encryption is used excessively. As a CCSP, it is up to you to implement encryption so that data is as secure as possible while minimizing the impact to system performance.\r\n\r\nCountless other challenges and considerations exist when implementing encryption technologies, both on-prem and in cloud environments. Some key cloud encryption challenges are\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Almost all data processing requires that data is in an unencrypted state. If a cloud customer is using a CSP for data analysis or processing, then encryption can be challenging to implement.</li>\r\n \t<li>Encryption keys are cached in memory when in use and often stay there for some time. This consideration is a major point of in multitenant environments because memory is a shared resource between tenants. CSPs must implement protections against tenants’ keys being accessed by tenants who share the same resources.</li>\r\n \t<li>Cloud data is often highly replicated (for availability purposes), which can make encryption and key managing challenging. Most CSPs have mechanisms in place to ensure that any copies of encrypted data remain encrypted.</li>\r\n \t<li>Throughout the entire data lifecycle, data can change states, locations, and format, which can require different applications of encryption along the way. Managing these changes may be a challenge, but understanding the Cloud Secure Data Lifecycle can help design complete end-to-end encryption solutions.</li>\r\n \t<li>Encryption is a confidentiality control at heart. It does not address threats to integrity of data on its own. Other technologies discussed throughout this chapter should be implemented to address integrity concerns.</li>\r\n \t<li>The effectiveness of an encryption solution is dependent upon how securely the encryption keys are stored and managed. As soon as an encryption key gets into the wrong hands, all data protected with that key is compromised. Keys that are managed by the CSP may potentially be accessed by malicious insiders, while customer-managed encryption keys are often mishandled or mismanaged.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAs the last point indicates, key management is a huge factor in ensuring that encryption implementations effectively secure cloud data. Because of its importance and the challenges associated with key management in the cloud, this task is typically one of the most complicated ones associated with securing cloud data.\r\n\r\nWhen developing your organization’s encryption and key management strategy, it’s important that you consider the following:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Key generation:</strong> <span class=\"NormalTextRun SCXW172544049 BCX0\" data-ccp-parastyle=\"Bullet\">Encryption keys should be generated within a trusted, secure cryptographic module. FIPS 140-</span><span class=\"NormalTextRun SCXW172544049 BCX0\" data-ccp-parastyle=\"Bullet\">3 </span><span class=\"NormalTextRun SCXW172544049 BCX0\" data-ccp-parastyle=\"Bullet\">validated modules have been tested and certified to meet certain requirements that </span><span class=\"NormalTextRun SCXW172544049 BCX0\" data-ccp-parastyle=\"Bullet\">demonstrate</span><span class=\"NormalTextRun SCXW172544049 BCX0\" data-ccp-parastyle=\"Bullet\"> tamper resistance and integrity of encryption keys.</span></li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Key distribution:</strong> It’s important that encryption keys are distributed securely to prevent theft or compromise during transit. One best practice is to encrypt keys with a separate encryption key while distributing to other parties (in PKI applications, for example). The worst thing that could happen is sending out a bunch of “secret” keys that get stolen by malicious eavesdroppers!</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Key storage:</strong> Encryption keys must be protected at rest (both in volatile and persistent memory) and should never be stored in plaintext. Keys may be stored and managed internally on a virtual machine or other integrated application, externally and separate from the data itself, or managed by a trusted third party that provides key escrow services for secure key management. A <em>Hardware Security Module </em>(HSM) is a physical device that safeguards encryption keys. Many cloud providers provide HSM services, as well as software-based HSM capabilities.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Key destruction or deletion:</strong> At the end of the encryption key’s lifecycle, there will be a time that the key is no longer needed. <em>Key destruction</em> is the removal of an encryption key from its operational location. <em>Key deletion</em> takes it a step further and also removes any information that could be used to reconstruct that key. To prevent a Denial of Service due to unavailable keys, deletion should only occur after an archival period that includes substantial analysis to ensure that the key is in fact no longer needed.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Cloud environments rely heavily on encryption throughout the entire data lifecycle. While encryption itself is used for confidentiality, the widespread use of encryption means that availability of the encryption keys themselves is a major concern. Pay close attention to availability as you’re designing your key management systems and processes.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >Hashing</h2>\r\n<em>Hashing</em>, as depicted, is the process of taking an arbitrary piece of data and generating a unique string or number of fixed-length from it. Hashing can be applied to any type of data — documents, images, database files, virtual machines, and more.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_274158\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-274158\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/ccsp-hashing.jpg\" alt=\"Hashing.\" width=\"556\" height=\"284\" /> Hashing.[/caption]\r\n\r\nHashing in a data structure provides a mechanism to ensure the integrity of data. Hashes are similar to human fingerprints, which can be used to uniquely identify a single person to whom that fingerprint belongs. As seen, even the slightest change to a large text file will noticeably change the output of the hashing algorithm. Hashing is incredibly useful when you want to be sure that what you’re looking at now is the same as what you created before. In cloud environments, hashing helps verify that virtual machine instances haven’t been modified (maliciously or accidentally) without your knowledge. Simply hash your VM image before running it and compare it to the hash of the known-good VM image; the hash outputs should be identical.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">The term hashing is sometimes used interchangeably with encryption, but they are very different! Encryption is a two-way function, meaning what can be encrypted can be decrypted. Conversely, hashing is a one-way function. You can only generate a hash of an object; you cannot retrieve an object from its hash. Encryption, again, is used to provide confidentiality, while hashing provides integrity checking. Be careful not to confuse these two terms!</p>\r\nSeveral hashing algorithms are available, but the SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) family of algorithms are amongst the most popular. Specific algorithms are outside the scope of this book, but you can research SHA-1, SHA-2, and SHA-3 for additional context.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Data Loss Prevention (DLP)</h2>\r\n<em>Data loss prevention </em>(DLP), also known as data leakage prevention, is the set of technologies and practices used to identify and classify sensitive data, while ensuring that sensitive data is not lost or accessed by unauthorized parties.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_274157\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-274157\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/ccsp-data-loss-prevention.jpg\" alt=\"Data Loss Prevention (DLP).\" width=\"556\" height=\"88\" /> Data Loss Prevention (DLP).[/caption]\r\n\r\nDLP can be applied to help restrict the flow of both structured and unstructured data to authorized locations and users. Effective use of DLP goes a long way to helping organizations safeguard their data’s confidentiality, both on-prem and in the cloud. To put it plainly, DLP analyzes data storage, identifies sensitive data components, and prevents users from accidentally or maliciously sending that sensitive data to the wrong party.\r\n\r\nWhen designing a DLP strategy, organizations must consider how the technology fits in with their existing technologies, processes, and architecture. DLP controls need to be thoroughly understood and applied in a manner that aligns with the organization’s overall enterprise architecture in order to ensure that only the right type of data is blocked from being transmitted.\r\n\r\nHybrid cloud users, or users that utilize a combination of cloud-based and on-prem services, should pay extremely close attention to their enterprise security architecture while developing a DLP strategy. Because data traverses both cloud and noncloud environments, a poor DLP implementation can result in segmented data security policies that are hard to manage and ineffective.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">DLP that is incorrectly implemented can lead to false-positives (for example, blocking legitimate traffic) or false-negatives (allowing sensitive data to be sent to unauthorized parties).</p>\r\nDLP implementations consist of three core components or stages:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Discovery and classification:</strong> The first stage of DLP is discovery and classification. <em>Discovery</em> is the process of finding all instances of data, and <em>classification</em> is the act of categorizing that data based on its sensitivity and other characteristics. Examples of classifications may include “credit card data,” “Social Security numbers,” “health records,” and so on. Comprehensive discovery and proper classification is crucial to success during the remaining DLP stages.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Monitoring:</strong> After data has been fully discovered and classified, it is able to be monitored. Monitoring is an essential component of the DLP implementation and involves watching data as it moves throughout the cloud data lifecycle. The monitoring stage is where the DLP implementation is looking to identify data that is being misused or handled outside of established usage policies. Effective DLP monitoring should happen on storage devices, networking devices, servers, workstations, and other endpoints — and it should evaluate traffic across all potential export routes (email, Internet browsers, and so on).</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Enforcement:</strong> The final DLP stage, enforcement, is where action is taken on policy violations identified during the monitoring stage. These actions are configured based on the classification of data and the potential impact of its loss. Violations of less sensitive data is traditionally logged and/or alerted on, while more sensitive data can actually be blocked from unauthorized exposure or loss. A common use-case here is financial services companies that detect credit card numbers being emailed to unauthorized domains and are able to stop the email in its tracks, before it ever leaves the corporate network.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAlways remember “Security follows the data” — and DLP technology is no different. When creating a DLP implementation strategy, it’s important that you consider techniques for monitoring activity in every data state. DLP data states are\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>DLP at rest:</strong> For data at rest, the DLP implementation is stored wherever the data is stored, such as a workstation, file server, or some other form of storage system. Although this DLP implementation is often the simplest, it may need to work in conjunction with other DLP implementations to be most effective.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>DLP in transit:</strong> <em>Network-based DLP</em> is data loss prevention that involves monitoring outbound traffic near the network perimeter. This DLP implementation monitors traffic over Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and other protocols.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips warning\">If the network traffic being monitored is encrypted, you will need to integrate encryption and key management technologies into your DLP solution. Standard DLP implementations cannot effectively monitor encrypted traffic, such as HTTPS.</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>DLP in use:</strong> <em>Host-based,</em> or <em>endpoint-based, DLP</em> is data loss prevention that involves installation of a DLP application on a workstation or other endpoint device. This DLP implementation allows monitoring of all data in use on the client device and provides insights that network-based DLP are not able to provide.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">Because of the massive scale of many cloud environments, host-based DLP can be a major challenge. There are simply too many hosts and endpoints to monitor without a sophisticated strategy that involves automated deployment. Despite this challenge, host-based DLP is not impossible in the cloud, and CSPs continue to make monitoring easier as new cloud-native DLP features become available.</p>\r\nAfter you understand DLP and how it can be used to protect cloud data, there are a few considerations that cloud security professionals commonly face when implementing cloud-based DLP:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Cloud data is highly distributed and replicated across locations. Data can move between servers, from one data center to another, to and from backup storage, or between a customer and the cloud provider. This movement, along with the data replication that ensures availability, present challenges that need to be worked through in a DLP strategy.</li>\r\n \t<li>DLP technologies can impact performance. Host-based DLP scan all data access activities on an endpoint, and network-based DLP scan all outbound network traffic across a network boundary. This constant monitoring and scanning can impact system and network performance and must be considered while developing and testing your DLP strategy.</li>\r\n \t<li>Cloud-based DLP can get expensive. The pay-for-what-you-use model is often a great savings to cloud customers, but when it comes to DLP, the constant resource utilization associated with monitoring traffic can quickly add up. It’s important to model and plan for resource consumption costs on top of the costs of the DLP solution itself.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h2 id=\"tab4\" >Data de-identification</h2>\r\nConfidentiality is incredibly important, especially in the cloud. While mechanisms like encryption and DLP go a long way to providing data confidentiality, they’re not always feasible. <em>Data de-identification</em> (or <em>anonymization</em>) is the process of removing information that can be used to identify a specific individual from a dataset. This technique is commonly used as a privacy measure to protect Personally Identifiable Information (PII) or other sensitive information from being exposed when an entire dataset is shared. The following figure depicts the purest form of data de-identification; in this example, student names have been removed in order to protect the confidentiality of their grades.\r\n\r\nSeveral techniques are available to de-identify sensitive information; masking (or obfuscation) and tokenization are two of the most commonly used methods.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_274156\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-274156\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/ccsp-data-de-identification.jpg\" alt=\"Data de-identification.\" width=\"556\" height=\"158\" /> Data de-identification.[/caption]\r\n<h3>Masking</h3>\r\n<em>Masking</em> is the process of partially or completely replacing sensitive data with random characters or other nonsensitive data. Masking, or <em>obfuscation, </em>can happen in a number of ways, but the following figure is a visual depiction of the most popular type of data masking, which is commonly used to protect credit card numbers and other sensitive financial information.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_274155\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-274155\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/ccsp-data-masking.jpg\" alt=\"Data masking.\" width=\"556\" height=\"205\" /> Data masking.[/caption]\r\n\r\nAs a cloud security professional, you can use several techniques when masking or obfuscating data. Here are a few to remember:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Substitution:</strong> <em>Substitution</em> mimics the look of real data, but replaces (or appends) it with some unrelated value. Substitution can either be random or algorithmic, with the latter allowing two-way substitution — meaning if you have the algorithm, then you can retrieve the original data from the masked dataset.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Scrambling:</strong> <em>Scrambling</em> mimics the look of real data, but simply jumbles the characters into a random order. For example, a customer’s whose account number is #5551234 may be shown as #1552435 in a development environment. (For what it’s worth, my scrambled phone number is 0926381135.)</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Deletion or nulling:</strong> This technique is just what it sounds like. When using this masking technique, data appears blank or empty to anyone who isn’t authorized to view it.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nAside from being used to comply with regulatory regulations (like HIPAA or PCI DSS), data masking is often used when organizations need to use production data in a test or development environment. By masking the data, development environments are able to use real data without exposing sensitive data elements to unauthorized viewers or less secure environments.\r\n<h3>Tokenization</h3>\r\n<em>Tokenization</em> is the process of substituting a sensitive piece of data with a nonsensitive replacement, called a <em>token.</em> The token is merely a reference back to the sensitive data, but has no meaning or sensitivity on its own. The token maintains the look and feel of the original data and is mapped back to the original data by the tokenization engine or application. Tokenization allows code to continue to run seamlessly, even with randomized tokens in place of sensitive data.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\"><em>Tokenization</em> can be outsourced to external, cloud-based tokenization services (referred to as tokenization-as-a-service). When using these services, it’s prudent to understand how the provider secures your data both at rest and in transit between you and their systems.</p>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":33440,"name":"Arthur J. Deane","slug":"arthur-deane","description":"<b>Arthur J. Deane</b> is a security and compliance executive at Google. He is a technical professional with 13+ years experience in information security, cloud security, IT risk management, and systems engineering.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/33440"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":34392,"title":"CCSP","slug":"ccsp","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34392"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33537,"title":"Cybersecurity","slug":"cybersecurity","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33537"}},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Encryption and key management","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"Hashing","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Data Loss Prevention (DLP)","target":"#tab3"},{"label":"Data de-identification","target":"#tab4"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":274173,"title":"The Secure Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC) Process","slug":"the-secure-software-development-lifecycle-sdlc-process","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274173"}},{"articleId":274167,"title":"CCSP Exam and Virtualization","slug":"ccsp-exam-and-virtualization","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274167"}},{"articleId":274162,"title":"10 Tips to Help You Prepare for the CCSP Exam","slug":"10-tips-to-help-you-prepare-for-the-ccsp-exam","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274162"}},{"articleId":274125,"title":"Cloud Data Storage Architectures","slug":"cloud-data-storage-architectures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274125"}},{"articleId":274120,"title":"Design Principles of Secure Cloud Computing","slug":"design-principles-of-secure-cloud-computing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274120"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":274173,"title":"The Secure Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC) Process","slug":"the-secure-software-development-lifecycle-sdlc-process","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274173"}},{"articleId":274167,"title":"CCSP Exam and Virtualization","slug":"ccsp-exam-and-virtualization","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274167"}},{"articleId":274162,"title":"10 Tips to Help You Prepare for the CCSP Exam","slug":"10-tips-to-help-you-prepare-for-the-ccsp-exam","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274162"}},{"articleId":274125,"title":"Cloud Data Storage Architectures","slug":"cloud-data-storage-architectures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274125"}},{"articleId":274120,"title":"Design Principles of Secure Cloud Computing","slug":"design-principles-of-secure-cloud-computing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274120"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":281662,"slug":"ccsp-for-dummies-with-online-practice","isbn":"9781394212811","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/139421281X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/139421281X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/139421281X-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/139421281X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/139421281X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/ccsp-for-dummies-2nd-edition-cover-9781394212811-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"CCSP For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"//coursofppt.com/go/fdactivatepin","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b><b data-author-id=\"33440\">Arthur J. Deane</b></b> is a security and compliance executive at Google. He is a technical professional with 13+ years experience in information security, cloud security, IT risk management, and systems engineering.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":33440,"name":"Arthur J. Deane","slug":"arthur-deane","description":"<b>Arthur J. Deane</b> is a security and compliance executive at Google. He is a technical professional with 13+ years experience in information security, cloud security, IT risk management, and systems engineering.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/33440"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;ccsp&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394212811&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-658380490b5e9\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;ccsp&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394212811&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-658380490bc8a\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-12-20T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":274154},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2021-10-28T00:22:49+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-12-20T21:01:44+00:00","timestamp":"2024-12-21T00:01:12+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Study Skills & Test Prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"slug":"study-skills-test-prep","categoryId":33772},{"name":"CCSP","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34392"},"slug":"ccsp","categoryId":34392}],"title":"CCSP Exam and Virtualization","strippedTitle":"ccsp exam and virtualization","slug":"ccsp-exam-and-virtualization","canonicalUrl":"","搜所领头羊提升":{"metaDescription":"To prepare for the CCSP exam, learn about virtualization, which is the process of creating software instances of actual hardware.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Domain 3, which includes cloud platform and infrastructure security, represents 17 percent of the <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/study-skills-test-prep/ccsp/ccsp-for-dummies-cheat-sheet-273450/\">CCSP certification exam</a>. <em>Virtualization</em> is the process of creating software instances of actual hardware. VMs, for example, are software instances of actual computers. Software-Defined Networks are virtualized networks. Nowadays, you can pretty much find any traditional hardware available as a virtualized solution.\r\n\r\nVirtualization is the secret sauce behind cloud computing, as it allows a single piece of hardware to be shared by multiple customers. Concepts like multitenancy and resource pooling would not exist as they do today — and you wouldn’t be reading this book — if it weren’t for the advent of virtualization!\r\n\r\nVirtualization offers many clear benefits. Following is a list of some of the most noteworthy:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Increases scalability:</strong> Virtualized environments are designed to grow as your demand grows. Instead of buying new hardware, you simply spin up additional virtual instances.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Allows faster resource provisioning:</strong> It’s much quicker and easier to spin up virtualized hardware from a console than it is to physically boot-up multiple pieces of hardware.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Reduces downtime:</strong> Restoring or redeploying physical hardware takes a lot of time, especially at scale. Failover for virtualized resources can happen much more quickly, which means your systems remain up and running longer.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Avoids vendor lock-in:</strong> Virtualization abstracts software from hardware, meaning your virtualized resources are more portable than their physical counterparts. Unhappy with your vendor? Pack up your VMs and move to another one!</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Saves</strong> <strong>time (and money):</strong> Virtualized resources can be easily centrally managed, reducing the need for personnel and equipment to maintain your infrastructure. In addition, less hardware usually means less money.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe preceding list reiterates why virtualization is such a critical technology and reminds you of the deep connection between virtualization and cloud computing.\r\n\r\nThe most common implementation of virtualization is the hypervisor. A hypervisor is a computing layer that allows multiple guest Operating Systems to run on a single physical host device. The following figure shows an overview of hypervisor architecture.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_274169\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-274169\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/ccsp-virtualization.jpg\" alt=\"hypervisor\" width=\"556\" height=\"404\" /> Hypervisor overview.[/caption]\r\n\r\nThe hypervisor abstracts software from hardware and allows each of the guest OSes to share the host’s hardware resources, while giving the guests the impression that they’re all alone on that host. The two categories of hypervisors are Type 1 and Type 2. A Type 1 hypervisor is also known as a bare metal hypervisor, as it runs directly on the hardware. Type 2 hypervisors, however, run on the host’s Operating System. This figure shows a comparison of the two.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_274168\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-274168\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/ccsp-hypervisor-comparison.jpg\" alt=\"hypervisor comparison\" width=\"556\" height=\"541\" /> Type 1 versus Type 2 hypervisors.[/caption]\r\n\r\nDespite all the advantages of virtualization, and hypervisors specifically, you, as a CCSP candidate, should remember some challenges:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Hypervisor security:</strong> The hypervisor is an additional piece of software, hardware, or firmware that sits between the host and each guest. As a result, it expands the attack surface and comes with its own set of vulnerabilities that the good guys must discover and patch before the bad guys get to them. If not fixed, hypervisor flaws can lead to external attacks on VMs or even VM-to-VM attacks, where one cloud tenant can access or compromise another tenant’s data.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>VM security:</strong> Virtual machines are nothing more than files that sit on a disk or other storage mechanism. Imagine your entire home computer wrapped up into a single icon that sits on your desktop — that’s pretty much what a virtual machine comes down to. If not sufficiently protected, a VM image is susceptible to compromise while dormant or offline. Use controls like Access Control Lists (ACLs), encryption, and hashing to protect the confidentiality and integrity of your VM files.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Network security:</strong> Network traffic within virtualized environments cannot be monitored and protected by physical security controls, such as network-based intrusion detection systems. You must select appropriate tools to monitor inter- and intra-VM network traffic.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">The concept of <em>virtual machine introspection</em> (VMI) allows a hypervisor to monitor its guest Operating Systems during runtime. Not all hypervisors are capable of VMI, but it’s a technique that can prove invaluable for securing VMs during operation.</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Resource utilization:</strong> If not properly configured, a single VM can exhaust a host’s resources, leaving other VMs out of luck. Resource utilization is where the concept of limits (discussed in the “Reservations, limits, and shares” section of this chapter) comes in handy. It’s essential that you manage VMs as if they share a pool of resources — because they do!</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"Domain 3, which includes cloud platform and infrastructure security, represents 17 percent of the <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/study-skills-test-prep/ccsp/ccsp-for-dummies-cheat-sheet-273450/\">CCSP certification exam</a>. <em>Virtualization</em> is the process of creating software instances of actual hardware. VMs, for example, are software instances of actual computers. Software-Defined Networks are virtualized networks. Nowadays, you can pretty much find any traditional hardware available as a virtualized solution.\r\n\r\nVirtualization is the secret sauce behind cloud computing, as it allows a single piece of hardware to be shared by multiple customers. Concepts like multitenancy and resource pooling would not exist as they do today — and you wouldn’t be reading this book — if it weren’t for the advent of virtualization!\r\n\r\nVirtualization offers many clear benefits. Following is a list of some of the most noteworthy:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Increases scalability:</strong> Virtualized environments are designed to grow as your demand grows. Instead of buying new hardware, you simply spin up additional virtual instances.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Allows faster resource provisioning:</strong> It’s much quicker and easier to spin up virtualized hardware from a console than it is to physically boot-up multiple pieces of hardware.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Reduces downtime:</strong> Restoring or redeploying physical hardware takes a lot of time, especially at scale. Failover for virtualized resources can happen much more quickly, which means your systems remain up and running longer.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Avoids vendor lock-in:</strong> Virtualization abstracts software from hardware, meaning your virtualized resources are more portable than their physical counterparts. Unhappy with your vendor? Pack up your VMs and move to another one!</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Saves</strong> <strong>time (and money):</strong> Virtualized resources can be easily centrally managed, reducing the need for personnel and equipment to maintain your infrastructure. In addition, less hardware usually means less money.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nThe preceding list reiterates why virtualization is such a critical technology and reminds you of the deep connection between virtualization and cloud computing.\r\n\r\nThe most common implementation of virtualization is the hypervisor. A hypervisor is a computing layer that allows multiple guest Operating Systems to run on a single physical host device. The following figure shows an overview of hypervisor architecture.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_274169\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-274169\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/ccsp-virtualization.jpg\" alt=\"hypervisor\" width=\"556\" height=\"404\" /> Hypervisor overview.[/caption]\r\n\r\nThe hypervisor abstracts software from hardware and allows each of the guest OSes to share the host’s hardware resources, while giving the guests the impression that they’re all alone on that host. The two categories of hypervisors are Type 1 and Type 2. A Type 1 hypervisor is also known as a bare metal hypervisor, as it runs directly on the hardware. Type 2 hypervisors, however, run on the host’s Operating System. This figure shows a comparison of the two.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_274168\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-274168\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/ccsp-hypervisor-comparison.jpg\" alt=\"hypervisor comparison\" width=\"556\" height=\"541\" /> Type 1 versus Type 2 hypervisors.[/caption]\r\n\r\nDespite all the advantages of virtualization, and hypervisors specifically, you, as a CCSP candidate, should remember some challenges:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Hypervisor security:</strong> The hypervisor is an additional piece of software, hardware, or firmware that sits between the host and each guest. As a result, it expands the attack surface and comes with its own set of vulnerabilities that the good guys must discover and patch before the bad guys get to them. If not fixed, hypervisor flaws can lead to external attacks on VMs or even VM-to-VM attacks, where one cloud tenant can access or compromise another tenant’s data.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>VM security:</strong> Virtual machines are nothing more than files that sit on a disk or other storage mechanism. Imagine your entire home computer wrapped up into a single icon that sits on your desktop — that’s pretty much what a virtual machine comes down to. If not sufficiently protected, a VM image is susceptible to compromise while dormant or offline. Use controls like Access Control Lists (ACLs), encryption, and hashing to protect the confidentiality and integrity of your VM files.</li>\r\n \t<li><strong>Network security:</strong> Network traffic within virtualized environments cannot be monitored and protected by physical security controls, such as network-based intrusion detection systems. You must select appropriate tools to monitor inter- and intra-VM network traffic.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tech\">The concept of <em>virtual machine introspection</em> (VMI) allows a hypervisor to monitor its guest Operating Systems during runtime. Not all hypervisors are capable of VMI, but it’s a technique that can prove invaluable for securing VMs during operation.</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li><strong>Resource utilization:</strong> If not properly configured, a single VM can exhaust a host’s resources, leaving other VMs out of luck. Resource utilization is where the concept of limits (discussed in the “Reservations, limits, and shares” section of this chapter) comes in handy. It’s essential that you manage VMs as if they share a pool of resources — because they do!</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":33440,"name":"Arthur J. Deane","slug":"arthur-deane","description":"<b>Arthur J. Deane</b> is a security and compliance executive at Google. He is a technical professional with 13+ years experience in information security, cloud security, IT risk management, and systems engineering.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/33440"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":34392,"title":"CCSP","slug":"ccsp","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34392"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33537,"title":"Cybersecurity","slug":"cybersecurity","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33537"}},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":274173,"title":"The Secure Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC) Process","slug":"the-secure-software-development-lifecycle-sdlc-process","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274173"}},{"articleId":274162,"title":"10 Tips to Help You Prepare for the CCSP Exam","slug":"10-tips-to-help-you-prepare-for-the-ccsp-exam","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274162"}},{"articleId":274154,"title":"CCSP: Data Security Technologies and Strategies","slug":"ccsp-data-security-technologies-and-strategies","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274154"}},{"articleId":274125,"title":"Cloud Data Storage Architectures","slug":"cloud-data-storage-architectures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274125"}},{"articleId":274120,"title":"Design Principles of Secure Cloud Computing","slug":"design-principles-of-secure-cloud-computing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274120"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":274173,"title":"The Secure Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC) Process","slug":"the-secure-software-development-lifecycle-sdlc-process","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274173"}},{"articleId":274162,"title":"10 Tips to Help You Prepare for the CCSP Exam","slug":"10-tips-to-help-you-prepare-for-the-ccsp-exam","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274162"}},{"articleId":274154,"title":"CCSP: Data Security Technologies and Strategies","slug":"ccsp-data-security-technologies-and-strategies","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274154"}},{"articleId":274125,"title":"Cloud Data Storage Architectures","slug":"cloud-data-storage-architectures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274125"}},{"articleId":274120,"title":"Design Principles of Secure Cloud Computing","slug":"design-principles-of-secure-cloud-computing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274120"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":281662,"slug":"ccsp-for-dummies-with-online-practice","isbn":"9781394212811","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/139421281X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/139421281X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/139421281X-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/139421281X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/139421281X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/ccsp-for-dummies-2nd-edition-cover-9781394212811-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"CCSP For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"//coursofppt.com/go/fdactivatepin","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b><b data-author-id=\"33440\">Arthur J. Deane</b></b> is a security and compliance executive at Google. He is a technical professional with 13+ years experience in information security, cloud security, IT risk management, and systems engineering.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":33440,"name":"Arthur J. Deane","slug":"arthur-deane","description":"<b>Arthur J. Deane</b> is a security and compliance executive at Google. He is a technical professional with 13+ years experience in information security, cloud security, IT risk management, and systems engineering.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/33440"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;ccsp&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394212811&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65838048f0e88\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;ccsp&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394212811&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65838048f1f74\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-12-20T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":274167},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2021-10-28T01:14:02+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-12-20T20:40:13+00:00","timestamp":"2024-12-20T21:01:11+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Study Skills & Test Prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"slug":"study-skills-test-prep","categoryId":33772},{"name":"CCSP","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34392"},"slug":"ccsp","categoryId":34392}],"title":"The Secure Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC) Process","strippedTitle":"the secure software development lifecycle (sdlc) process","slug":"the-secure-software-development-lifecycle-sdlc-process","canonicalUrl":"","搜所领头羊提升":{"metaDescription":"Get an overview of the Secure Software Development Lifecycle process, which you need to know to pass the CCSP certification exam.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The Secure Software Development Lifecycle process is covered under Domain 4, which represents 17 percent of the CCSP certification exam. Streamlined and secure application development requires a consistent methodology and a well-defined process of getting from concept to finished product. SDLC is the series of steps that is followed to build, modify, and maintain computing software.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Business requirements</h2>\r\nYour organization’s business requirements should be a key consideration whenever you develop new software or even when you modify existing applications. You should make sure that you have a firm understanding of your organization’s goals (overall and specific to your project) and knowledge of the end-user’s needs and expectations.\r\n\r\nIt’s important to gather input from as many stakeholders as possible as early as possible to support the success of your application. Gathering requirements from relevant leaders and business units across your organization is crucial to ensuring that you don’t waste development cycles on applications or features that don’t meet the needs of your business.\r\n\r\nThese business requirements are a critical input into the SDLC.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >SDLC phases</h2>\r\nWhile the SDLC process has multiple different variations, it most commonly includes the steps, or phases:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Planning</li>\r\n \t<li>Defining</li>\r\n \t<li>Designing</li>\r\n \t<li>Developing</li>\r\n \t<li>Testing</li>\r\n \t<li>Deploying and maintaining</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-301274\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781394212811-cs03.jpg\" alt=\"diagram showing the software development lifecyle overview\" width=\"394\" height=\"400\" />\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">There’s a good chance that you will see at least one question related to the SDLC on your exam. Remember that the titles of each phase may vary slightly from one methodology to the next, but make sure that you have a strong understanding of the overall flow and the order of operations.</p>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Although none of the stages specifically reference security, it is important that you consider security at each and every step of the SDLC process. Waiting until later stages of the process can introduce unnecessary security risks, which can add unforeseen costs and extend your project timeline.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>SDLC Planning phase</h3>\r\nThe Planning phase is the most fundamental stage of the SDLC and is sometimes called Requirements Gathering. During this initial phase, the project scope is established and high-level requirements are gathered to support the remaining lifecycle phases. The project team should work with senior leadership and all project stakeholders to create the overall project timeline and identify project costs and resources required.\r\n\r\nDuring the Planning phase, you must consider all requirements and desired features and conduct a cost-benefit analysis to determine the potential financial impact versus the proposed value to the end-user. Using all the information that you gather during this phase, you should then validate the economic and technical feasibility of proceeding with the project.\r\n\r\nThe Planning phase is where risks should initially be identified. Your project team should consider what may go wrong and how you can mitigate, or lower, the impact of those risks. For example, imagine that you’re building an online banking application. As part of the Planning phase, you should not only consider all functional requirements of such an application, but also security and compliance requirements, such as satisfying PCI DSS. Consider what risks currently exist within your organization (or your cloud environment) that might get in the way of demonstrating PCI DSS and then plan ways to address those risks.\r\n<h3>SDLC Defining phase</h3>\r\nYou may also see this phase referred to as Requirements Analysis. During the Defining phase, you use all the business requirements, feasibility studies, and stakeholder input from the Planning phase to document clearly defined product requirements. Your product requirements should provide full details of the specific features and functionality of your proposed application. These requirements will ultimately feed your design decisions, so it needs to be as thorough as possible.\r\n\r\nIn addition, during this phase you must define the specific hardware and software requirements required for your development team — identify what type of dev environment is needed, designate your programming language, and define all technical resources needed to complete the project.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">This phase is where you should specifically define all your application security requirements and identify the tools and resources necessary to develop those accordingly. You should be thinking about where encryption is required, what type of access control features are needed, and what requirements you have for maintaining your code’s integrity.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>SDLC Designing phase</h3>\r\nThe Designing phase is where you take your product requirements and software specifications and turn them into an actual design plan, often called a <em>design specification document</em>. This design plan is then used during the next phase to guide the actual development and implementation of your application.\r\n\r\nDuring the Designing phase, your developers, systems architects, and other technical staff create the high-level system and software design to meet each identified requirement. Your mission during this phase is to design the overall software architecture and create a plan that identifies the technical details of your application’s design. In cloud development, this phase includes defining the required amount of CPU cores, RAM, and bandwidth, while also identifying which cloud services are required for full functionality of your application. This component is critical because it may identify a need for your organization to provision additional cloud resources. Your design should define all software components that need to be created, interconnections with third-party systems, the front-end user interface, and all data flows (both within the application and between users and the application).\r\n\r\nAt this stage of the SDLC, you should also conduct threat modeling exercises and integrate your risk mitigation decisions (from the Planning phase) into your formal designs. In other words, you want to fully identify potential risks.\r\n<h3>SDLC Developing phase</h3>\r\nSoftware developers, rejoice! After weeks or even months of project planning, you can finally write some code! During this phase of the SDLC, your development team breaks up the work documented in previous steps into pieces (or modules) that are coded individually. Database developers create the required data storage architecture, front-end developers create the interface that users will interact with, and back-end developers code all the behind-the-scenes inner-workings of the application. This phase is typically the longest of the SDLC, but if the previous steps are followed carefully, it can be the least complicated part of the whole process.\r\n\r\nDuring this phase, developers should conduct peer reviews of each other’s code to check for flaws, and each individual module should be unit tested to verify its functionality prior to being rolled into the larger project. Some development teams skip this part and struggle mightily to debug flaws once an application is completed.\r\n\r\nIn addition to conducting functional testing of each module, the time is right to begin security testing. Your organization should conduct static code analysis and security scanning of each module before integration into the project. Failure to do so may allow individual software vulnerabilities to get lost in the overall codebase, and multiple individual security flaws may combine to present a larger aggregate risk, or combined risk.\r\n<h3>SDLA Testing phase</h3>\r\nOnce the code is fully developed, the application enters the Testing phase. During this phase, application testers seek to verify whether the application functions as desired and according to the documented requirements; the ultimate goal here is to uncover all flaws within the application and report those flaws to the developers for patching. This cyclical process continues until all product requirements have been validated and all flaws have been fixed.\r\n\r\nAs a completed application, security testers have more tools at their disposal to uncover security flaws. Instead of relying solely on static code analysis, testers can use dynamic analysis to identify flaws that occur only when the code is executed.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">The Testing phase is one of the most crucial phases of the SDLC, as it is the main gate between your development team and customers. Testing should be conducted in accordance with an application testing plan that identifies what and how to test. Management and relevant stakeholders should carefully review and approve your testing plan before testing begins.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Deploying and maintaining</h3>\r\nOnce the application has passed the Testing phase, it is ready to be deployed for customer use. There are often multiple stages of deployment (Alpha, Beta, and General Availability are common ones), each with its own breadth of deployment (for example, alpha releases tend to be deployed to select customers, whereas general availability means it’s ready for everyone).\r\n\r\nOnce applications have been tested and successfully deployed, they enter a maintenance phase where they’re continually monitored and updated. During the Maintaining phase, the production software undergoes an ongoing cycle of the SDLC process, where security patches and other updates go through the same planning, defining, designing, developing, testing, and deploying activities discussed in the preceding sections.\r\n\r\nMany SDLC models include a separate phase for disposal or termination, which happens when an application is no longer needed or supported. From a security perspective, you should keep in mind that data (including portions of applications) may remain in cloud environments even after deletion. Consult your contracts and SLAs for commitments that your CSP makes for data deletion.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Methodologies</h2>\r\nAlthough the steps within the SDLC remain largely constant, several SDLC methodologies, or models, exist, and each approaches these steps in slightly different ways. Two of the most commonly referenced and used methodologies are waterfall and agile.\r\n<h3>Waterfall</h3>\r\n<em>Waterfall</em> is the oldest and most straightforward SDLC methodology. In this model, you complete one phase and then continue on to the next — you move in sequential order, flowing through every step of the cycle from beginning to end. Each phase of this model relies on successful completion of the previous phase; there’s no going back, because... well, because waterfalls don’t flow up.\r\n\r\nSome advantages of the waterfall methodology include\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>It’s simple to manage and easy to follow.</li>\r\n \t<li>Tracking and measuring progress is easy because you have a clearly defined end state early on.</li>\r\n \t<li>The measure twice, cut once approach allows applications to be developed based upon a more complete understanding of all requirements and deliverables from the start.</li>\r\n \t<li>The process can largely occur without customer intervention after requirements are initially gathered. Customers and developers agree on desired outcomes early in the project.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nSome challenges that come with waterfall include\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>It’s rigid. Requirements must be fully developed early in the process and are difficult to change once the design has been completed.</li>\r\n \t<li>Products may take longer to deliver compared to more iterative models, like agile.</li>\r\n \t<li>It relies very little on the customer or end-user, which may make some customers feel left out.</li>\r\n \t<li>Testing is delayed until late in the process, which may allow small issues to build up into larger ones before they’re detected.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h3>Agile</h3>\r\n<em>Agile</em> is more of the new kid on the block, having been introduced in the 1990s. In this model, instead of proceeding in a linear and sequential fashion, development and testing activities occur simultaneously and cyclically.\r\n\r\nApplication development is separated into <em>sprints</em> that produce a succession of releases that each improves upon the previous release. With the agile model, the goal is to move quickly and to fail fast — create your first release, test it, fix it, and create your next release fast!\r\n\r\nSome advantages of the agile methodology include\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>It’s flexible. You can move from one phase to the next without worrying that the previous phase isn’t perfect or complete.</li>\r\n \t<li>Time to market is much quicker than waterfall.</li>\r\n \t<li>It’s very user-focused; the customer has frequent opportunities to give feedback on the application.</li>\r\n \t<li>Risks may be reduced because the iterative nature of agile allows you get feedback and conduct testing early and often.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nSome challenges that come with Agile include\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>It can be challenging to apply in real-life projects, especially larger projects with many stakeholders and components.</li>\r\n \t<li>The product end-state is less predictable than waterfall. With agile, you iterate until you’re happy with the result.</li>\r\n \t<li>It requires a very high level of collaboration and frequent communication between developers, customers, and other stakeholders. This challenge can be a pro, but sometimes has a negative impact on developers and project timelines.</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"The Secure Software Development Lifecycle process is covered under Domain 4, which represents 17 percent of the CCSP certification exam. Streamlined and secure application development requires a consistent methodology and a well-defined process of getting from concept to finished product. SDLC is the series of steps that is followed to build, modify, and maintain computing software.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >Business requirements</h2>\r\nYour organization’s business requirements should be a key consideration whenever you develop new software or even when you modify existing applications. You should make sure that you have a firm understanding of your organization’s goals (overall and specific to your project) and knowledge of the end-user’s needs and expectations.\r\n\r\nIt’s important to gather input from as many stakeholders as possible as early as possible to support the success of your application. Gathering requirements from relevant leaders and business units across your organization is crucial to ensuring that you don’t waste development cycles on applications or features that don’t meet the needs of your business.\r\n\r\nThese business requirements are a critical input into the SDLC.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >SDLC phases</h2>\r\nWhile the SDLC process has multiple different variations, it most commonly includes the steps, or phases:\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>Planning</li>\r\n \t<li>Defining</li>\r\n \t<li>Designing</li>\r\n \t<li>Developing</li>\r\n \t<li>Testing</li>\r\n \t<li>Deploying and maintaining</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-301274\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781394212811-cs03.jpg\" alt=\"diagram showing the software development lifecyle overview\" width=\"394\" height=\"400\" />\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">There’s a good chance that you will see at least one question related to the SDLC on your exam. Remember that the titles of each phase may vary slightly from one methodology to the next, but make sure that you have a strong understanding of the overall flow and the order of operations.</p>\r\n<p class=\"article-tips remember\">Although none of the stages specifically reference security, it is important that you consider security at each and every step of the SDLC process. Waiting until later stages of the process can introduce unnecessary security risks, which can add unforeseen costs and extend your project timeline.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>SDLC Planning phase</h3>\r\nThe Planning phase is the most fundamental stage of the SDLC and is sometimes called Requirements Gathering. During this initial phase, the project scope is established and high-level requirements are gathered to support the remaining lifecycle phases. The project team should work with senior leadership and all project stakeholders to create the overall project timeline and identify project costs and resources required.\r\n\r\nDuring the Planning phase, you must consider all requirements and desired features and conduct a cost-benefit analysis to determine the potential financial impact versus the proposed value to the end-user. Using all the information that you gather during this phase, you should then validate the economic and technical feasibility of proceeding with the project.\r\n\r\nThe Planning phase is where risks should initially be identified. Your project team should consider what may go wrong and how you can mitigate, or lower, the impact of those risks. For example, imagine that you’re building an online banking application. As part of the Planning phase, you should not only consider all functional requirements of such an application, but also security and compliance requirements, such as satisfying PCI DSS. Consider what risks currently exist within your organization (or your cloud environment) that might get in the way of demonstrating PCI DSS and then plan ways to address those risks.\r\n<h3>SDLC Defining phase</h3>\r\nYou may also see this phase referred to as Requirements Analysis. During the Defining phase, you use all the business requirements, feasibility studies, and stakeholder input from the Planning phase to document clearly defined product requirements. Your product requirements should provide full details of the specific features and functionality of your proposed application. These requirements will ultimately feed your design decisions, so it needs to be as thorough as possible.\r\n\r\nIn addition, during this phase you must define the specific hardware and software requirements required for your development team — identify what type of dev environment is needed, designate your programming language, and define all technical resources needed to complete the project.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">This phase is where you should specifically define all your application security requirements and identify the tools and resources necessary to develop those accordingly. You should be thinking about where encryption is required, what type of access control features are needed, and what requirements you have for maintaining your code’s integrity.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>SDLC Designing phase</h3>\r\nThe Designing phase is where you take your product requirements and software specifications and turn them into an actual design plan, often called a <em>design specification document</em>. This design plan is then used during the next phase to guide the actual development and implementation of your application.\r\n\r\nDuring the Designing phase, your developers, systems architects, and other technical staff create the high-level system and software design to meet each identified requirement. Your mission during this phase is to design the overall software architecture and create a plan that identifies the technical details of your application’s design. In cloud development, this phase includes defining the required amount of CPU cores, RAM, and bandwidth, while also identifying which cloud services are required for full functionality of your application. This component is critical because it may identify a need for your organization to provision additional cloud resources. Your design should define all software components that need to be created, interconnections with third-party systems, the front-end user interface, and all data flows (both within the application and between users and the application).\r\n\r\nAt this stage of the SDLC, you should also conduct threat modeling exercises and integrate your risk mitigation decisions (from the Planning phase) into your formal designs. In other words, you want to fully identify potential risks.\r\n<h3>SDLC Developing phase</h3>\r\nSoftware developers, rejoice! After weeks or even months of project planning, you can finally write some code! During this phase of the SDLC, your development team breaks up the work documented in previous steps into pieces (or modules) that are coded individually. Database developers create the required data storage architecture, front-end developers create the interface that users will interact with, and back-end developers code all the behind-the-scenes inner-workings of the application. This phase is typically the longest of the SDLC, but if the previous steps are followed carefully, it can be the least complicated part of the whole process.\r\n\r\nDuring this phase, developers should conduct peer reviews of each other’s code to check for flaws, and each individual module should be unit tested to verify its functionality prior to being rolled into the larger project. Some development teams skip this part and struggle mightily to debug flaws once an application is completed.\r\n\r\nIn addition to conducting functional testing of each module, the time is right to begin security testing. Your organization should conduct static code analysis and security scanning of each module before integration into the project. Failure to do so may allow individual software vulnerabilities to get lost in the overall codebase, and multiple individual security flaws may combine to present a larger aggregate risk, or combined risk.\r\n<h3>SDLA Testing phase</h3>\r\nOnce the code is fully developed, the application enters the Testing phase. During this phase, application testers seek to verify whether the application functions as desired and according to the documented requirements; the ultimate goal here is to uncover all flaws within the application and report those flaws to the developers for patching. This cyclical process continues until all product requirements have been validated and all flaws have been fixed.\r\n\r\nAs a completed application, security testers have more tools at their disposal to uncover security flaws. Instead of relying solely on static code analysis, testers can use dynamic analysis to identify flaws that occur only when the code is executed.\r\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">The Testing phase is one of the most crucial phases of the SDLC, as it is the main gate between your development team and customers. Testing should be conducted in accordance with an application testing plan that identifies what and how to test. Management and relevant stakeholders should carefully review and approve your testing plan before testing begins.</p>\r\n\r\n<h3>Deploying and maintaining</h3>\r\nOnce the application has passed the Testing phase, it is ready to be deployed for customer use. There are often multiple stages of deployment (Alpha, Beta, and General Availability are common ones), each with its own breadth of deployment (for example, alpha releases tend to be deployed to select customers, whereas general availability means it’s ready for everyone).\r\n\r\nOnce applications have been tested and successfully deployed, they enter a maintenance phase where they’re continually monitored and updated. During the Maintaining phase, the production software undergoes an ongoing cycle of the SDLC process, where security patches and other updates go through the same planning, defining, designing, developing, testing, and deploying activities discussed in the preceding sections.\r\n\r\nMany SDLC models include a separate phase for disposal or termination, which happens when an application is no longer needed or supported. From a security perspective, you should keep in mind that data (including portions of applications) may remain in cloud environments even after deletion. Consult your contracts and SLAs for commitments that your CSP makes for data deletion.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Methodologies</h2>\r\nAlthough the steps within the SDLC remain largely constant, several SDLC methodologies, or models, exist, and each approaches these steps in slightly different ways. Two of the most commonly referenced and used methodologies are waterfall and agile.\r\n<h3>Waterfall</h3>\r\n<em>Waterfall</em> is the oldest and most straightforward SDLC methodology. In this model, you complete one phase and then continue on to the next — you move in sequential order, flowing through every step of the cycle from beginning to end. Each phase of this model relies on successful completion of the previous phase; there’s no going back, because... well, because waterfalls don’t flow up.\r\n\r\nSome advantages of the waterfall methodology include\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>It’s simple to manage and easy to follow.</li>\r\n \t<li>Tracking and measuring progress is easy because you have a clearly defined end state early on.</li>\r\n \t<li>The measure twice, cut once approach allows applications to be developed based upon a more complete understanding of all requirements and deliverables from the start.</li>\r\n \t<li>The process can largely occur without customer intervention after requirements are initially gathered. Customers and developers agree on desired outcomes early in the project.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nSome challenges that come with waterfall include\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>It’s rigid. Requirements must be fully developed early in the process and are difficult to change once the design has been completed.</li>\r\n \t<li>Products may take longer to deliver compared to more iterative models, like agile.</li>\r\n \t<li>It relies very little on the customer or end-user, which may make some customers feel left out.</li>\r\n \t<li>Testing is delayed until late in the process, which may allow small issues to build up into larger ones before they’re detected.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<h3>Agile</h3>\r\n<em>Agile</em> is more of the new kid on the block, having been introduced in the 1990s. In this model, instead of proceeding in a linear and sequential fashion, development and testing activities occur simultaneously and cyclically.\r\n\r\nApplication development is separated into <em>sprints</em> that produce a succession of releases that each improves upon the previous release. With the agile model, the goal is to move quickly and to fail fast — create your first release, test it, fix it, and create your next release fast!\r\n\r\nSome advantages of the agile methodology include\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>It’s flexible. You can move from one phase to the next without worrying that the previous phase isn’t perfect or complete.</li>\r\n \t<li>Time to market is much quicker than waterfall.</li>\r\n \t<li>It’s very user-focused; the customer has frequent opportunities to give feedback on the application.</li>\r\n \t<li>Risks may be reduced because the iterative nature of agile allows you get feedback and conduct testing early and often.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\nSome challenges that come with Agile include\r\n<ul>\r\n \t<li>It can be challenging to apply in real-life projects, especially larger projects with many stakeholders and components.</li>\r\n \t<li>The product end-state is less predictable than waterfall. With agile, you iterate until you’re happy with the result.</li>\r\n \t<li>It requires a very high level of collaboration and frequent communication between developers, customers, and other stakeholders. This challenge can be a pro, but sometimes has a negative impact on developers and project timelines.</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":33440,"name":"Arthur J. Deane","slug":"arthur-deane","description":"<b>Arthur J. Deane</b> is a security and compliance executive at Google. He is a technical professional with 13+ years experience in information security, cloud security, IT risk management, and systems engineering.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/33440"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":34392,"title":"CCSP","slug":"ccsp","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/34392"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33537,"title":"Cybersecurity","slug":"cybersecurity","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33537"}},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"Business requirements","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"SDLC phases","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Methodologies","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":274167,"title":"CCSP Exam and Virtualization","slug":"ccsp-exam-and-virtualization","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274167"}},{"articleId":274162,"title":"10 Tips to Help You Prepare for the CCSP Exam","slug":"10-tips-to-help-you-prepare-for-the-ccsp-exam","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274162"}},{"articleId":274154,"title":"CCSP: Data Security Technologies and Strategies","slug":"ccsp-data-security-technologies-and-strategies","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274154"}},{"articleId":274125,"title":"Cloud Data Storage Architectures","slug":"cloud-data-storage-architectures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274125"}},{"articleId":274120,"title":"Design Principles of Secure Cloud Computing","slug":"design-principles-of-secure-cloud-computing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274120"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":274167,"title":"CCSP Exam and Virtualization","slug":"ccsp-exam-and-virtualization","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274167"}},{"articleId":274162,"title":"10 Tips to Help You Prepare for the CCSP Exam","slug":"10-tips-to-help-you-prepare-for-the-ccsp-exam","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274162"}},{"articleId":274154,"title":"CCSP: Data Security Technologies and Strategies","slug":"ccsp-data-security-technologies-and-strategies","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274154"}},{"articleId":274125,"title":"Cloud Data Storage Architectures","slug":"cloud-data-storage-architectures","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274125"}},{"articleId":274120,"title":"Design Principles of Secure Cloud Computing","slug":"design-principles-of-secure-cloud-computing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/274120"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":281662,"slug":"ccsp-for-dummies-with-online-practice","isbn":"9781394212811","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","ccsp"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/139421281X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/139421281X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/139421281X-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/139421281X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/139421281X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/ccsp-for-dummies-2nd-edition-cover-9781394212811-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"CCSP For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"//coursofppt.com/go/fdactivatepin","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b><b data-author-id=\"33440\">Arthur J. Deane</b></b> is a security and compliance executive at Google. He is a technical professional with 13+ years experience in information security, cloud security, IT risk management, and systems engineering.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":33440,"name":"Arthur J. Deane","slug":"arthur-deane","description":"<b>Arthur J. Deane</b> is a security and compliance executive at Google. 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Get some tips on taking the exam and learn a bit about cloud computing and the Shared Responsibility Model.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The Certified Cloud Security Professional (CCSP) credential is based upon a Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) jointly developed by the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium (ISC)<sup>2</sup> and the Cloud Security Alliance (CSA).\r\n\r\nThe CBK (and the associated exam) includes six domains that cover separate, but interrelated, areas: Cloud Concepts, Architecture and Design; Cloud Data Security; Cloud Platform & Infrastructure Security; Cloud Application Security; <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/programming/certification/assess-mitigate-vulnerabilities-security-architectures-designs-solution-elements/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Cloud Security</a> Operations; and Legal, Risk and Compliance. A ton of information is in these domains, and you can use this Cheat Sheet to remember some of the most important parts.","description":"The Certified Cloud Security Professional (CCSP) credential is based upon a Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) jointly developed by the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium (ISC)<sup>2</sup> and the Cloud Security Alliance (CSA).\r\n\r\nThe CBK (and the associated exam) includes six domains that cover separate, but interrelated, areas: Cloud Concepts, Architecture and Design; Cloud Data Security; Cloud Platform & Infrastructure Security; Cloud Application Security; <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/programming/certification/assess-mitigate-vulnerabilities-security-architectures-designs-solution-elements/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">Cloud Security</a> Operations; and Legal, Risk and Compliance. A ton of information is in these domains, and you can use this Cheat Sheet to remember some of the most important parts.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":33440,"name":"Arthur J. Deane","slug":"arthur-deane","description":"<b>Arthur J. Deane</b> is a security and compliance executive at Google. 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Deane</b></b> is a security and compliance executive at Google. He is a technical professional with 13+ years experience in information security, cloud security, IT risk management, and systems engineering.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":33440,"name":"Arthur J. Deane","slug":"arthur-deane","description":"<b>Arthur J. Deane</b> is a security and compliance executive at Google. He is a technical professional with 13+ years experience in information security, cloud security, IT risk management, and systems engineering.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/33440"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;ccsp&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394212811&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65835617514bf\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;ccsp&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394212811&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-65835617527d3\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":0,"title":"","slug":null,"categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/"}}],"content":[{"title":"Helpful tips to prepare for the CCSP exam","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Taking any standardized test can be a bit scary — and the CCSP is a definitely no joke! Not to worry, though. With proper preparation (like reading <em>CCSP For Dummies with Online Practice</em>) and following these key tips, you’ll be well on your way to acing the exam!</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Brush up on the prerequisites.</strong> Passing the CCSP exam requires that you know a lot about information security and a lot about cloud computing. To make studying for the CCSP a little less underwhelming, make sure that you already have a strong grasp of general IT topics, like networking and databases. Having Information Security experience is also a great idea, but <em>CCSP For Dummies</em> includes a chapter dedicated to Information Security fundamentals, if you need a primer or refresher.</li>\n<li><strong>Register for exam . . . like now!</strong> It’s so easy to say, “I’ll register when I’m ready for the exam,” but setting a test date and sticking to it is a great way to stay motivated by working toward a specific goal. Worst case scenario: You can always reschedule your exam.</li>\n<li><strong>Identify your learning style.</strong> Some people learn best by reading several books cover to cover, and others like a combination of reading, classroom learning, and study groups. Set yourself up for success by identifying what works best for you and making that happen.</li>\n<li><strong>Make your study plan.</strong> Create an aggressive, yet realistic, study plan that you’ll stick to. Sixty to 90 days (in addition to your lifetime of experiences) is a good target for most people. Stay away from longer than 120-day study plans — longer periods tend to lead to shorter attention spans.</li>\n<li><strong>Practice, practice, practice.</strong> Do plenty practice questions after you read <em>CCSP For Dummies</em> and throughout your studies. Start with the practice questions that come with the book and then scour the interwebs for as many other practice sets as you can find — just make sure they’re legitimate sources!</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"The Shared Responsibility Model","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Talk about cloud computing, and the Shared Responsibility Model almost always creeps into the conversation — seriously! The Shared Responsibility is a critical concept that underlies how the cloud and cloud data is secured. When you’re studying for the CCSP, you should really understand this topic like the back of your hand.</p>\n<p>The cloud Shared Responsibility Model identifies the separate, but connected, responsibilities held by the cloud provider and the cloud customer.</p>\n<p>In general, the cloud provider is responsible for security of the cloud, while the cloud customer is responsible for “security in the cloud.” See the following figure.</p>\n<div class=\"figure-container\"><figure id=\"attachment_301272\" aria-labelledby=\"figcaption_attachment_301272\" class=\"wp-caption aligncenter\" style=\"width: 545px\"><img loading=\"lazy\" class=\"wp-image-301272 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781394212811-cs01.jpg\" alt=\"diagram showing the Shared Responsibility Model overview\" width=\"535\" height=\"322\" /><figcaption id=\"figcaption_attachment_301272\" class=\"wp-caption-text\">Shared Responsibility Model overview.</figcaption></figure></div><div class=\"clearfix\"></div>\n<p>In general, the cloud provider is responsible for security of the cloud, while the cloud customer is responsible for “security in the cloud.” See the following figure.</p>\n<p>The responsibilities will be broken up differently based on the cloud service model that you’re using — IaaS, PaaS, or SaaS. See the following figure.&nbsp;</p>\n<div class=\"figure-container\"><figure id=\"attachment_301273\" aria-labelledby=\"figcaption_attachment_301273\" class=\"wp-caption aligncenter\" style=\"width: 545px\"><img loading=\"lazy\" class=\"wp-image-301273 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/9781394212811-cs02.jpg\" alt=\"diagram showing the responsibilities by service model\" width=\"535\" height=\"393\" /><figcaption id=\"figcaption_attachment_301273\" class=\"wp-caption-text\">Responsibilities by service model.</figcaption></figure></div><div class=\"clearfix\"></div>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Six months","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-02-18T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":273450},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2024-12-01T20:11:31+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-12-01T20:11:31+00:00","timestamp":"2024-12-01T21:01:10+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Learning Languages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33689"},"slug":"learning-languages","categoryId":33689},{"name":"Swahili","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/35352"},"slug":"swahili","categoryId":35352}],"title":"Swahili For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"swahili for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"swahili-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜所领头羊提升":{"metaDescription":"Learn Swahili basics with our Dummes cheat sheet - useful phrases for greetings, questions, numbers, and calendar days.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"<span data-contrast=\"auto\">Whether you’re planning to visit East Africa for a few days or stay long term, it’s a good idea to have some basic phrases up your sleeve to help you manage conversations in Swahili smoothly. In this cheat sheet, you’ll find useful phrases to use in greetings, asking questions, dealing with numbers, and understanding the calendar days.</span>","description":"<span data-contrast=\"auto\">Whether you’re planning to visit East Africa for a few days or stay long term, it’s a good idea to have some basic phrases up your sleeve to help you manage conversations in Swahili smoothly. In this cheat sheet, you’ll find useful phrases to use in greetings, asking questions, dealing with numbers, and understanding the calendar days.</span>","blurb":"In the Swahili For Dummies cheat sheet, you’ll find useful phrases to use in greetings, asking questions, dealing with numbers, and understanding the calendar days.","authors":[{"authorId":35353,"name":"Seline Okeno","slug":"seline-okeno","description":"<b>Seline Ayugi Okeno</b> was born and raised in Siaya, Kenya. She holds a B.Ed. Arts from Maseno University in Kenya and an M.A. in Applied Lin­guistics from Ohio University. She is currently a Swahili and English Teaching Fellow at The University of Edinburgh in Scotland.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35353"}},{"authorId":35354,"name":"Asmaha Heddi","slug":"asmaha-heddi","description":"<b>Asmaha Heddi</b> hails from Arusha, Tanzania. She is a Kiswahili lecturer at the University of Kansas. She holds a B.A. from the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania and an M.A. in Applied Linguistics from Ohio University.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35354"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":35352,"title":"Swahili","slug":"swahili","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/35352"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":301260,"slug":"swahili-for-dummies","isbn":"9781394191567","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","swahili"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1394191561/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1394191561/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1394191561-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1394191561/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1394191561/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/swahili-for-dummies-cover-9781394191567-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Swahili For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b>Seline Ayugi Okeno</b> was born and raised in Siaya, Kenya. She holds a B.Ed. Arts from Maseno University in Kenya and an M.A. in Applied Lin­guistics from Ohio University. She is currently a Swahili and English Teaching Fellow at The University of Edinburgh in Scotland. <b><b data-author-id=\"35354\">Asmaha Heddi</b></b> hails from Arusha, Tanzania. She is a Kiswahili lecturer at the University of Kansas. She holds a B.A. from the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania and an M.A. in Applied Linguistics from Ohio University.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":35353,"name":"Seline Okeno","slug":"seline-okeno","description":"<b>Seline Ayugi Okeno</b> was born and raised in Siaya, Kenya. She holds a B.Ed. Arts from Maseno University in Kenya and an M.A. in Applied Lin­guistics from Ohio University. She is currently a Swahili and English Teaching Fellow at The University of Edinburgh in Scotland.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35353"}},{"authorId":35354,"name":"Asmaha Heddi","slug":"asmaha-heddi","description":"<b>Asmaha Heddi</b> hails from Arusha, Tanzania. She is a Kiswahili lecturer at the University of Kansas. She holds a B.A. from the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania and an M.A. in Applied Linguistics from Ohio University.","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/35354"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;swahili&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394191567&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-656a49968016e\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;swahili&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394191567&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-656a499682660\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":0,"title":"","slug":null,"categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/"}}],"content":[{"title":"Greeting in Swahili","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Every initial social interaction in Swahili begins with a greeting and ends with a farewell. Here are some basic greetings and farewells to remember.</p>\n<table aria-rowcount=\"5\">\n<tbody>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"1\">\n<td><b>habari?</b>(hah-bah-ree) (How are you?)</td>\n<td><b>Nzuri </b>(n-zoo-ree) (fine/well)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"2\">\n<td><b>hujambo? </b>(hoo-jah-mboh) (<i>How are you?</i>)</td>\n<td><b>Sijambo </b>(see-<i>jah</i>-mboh) (<i>I am fine.</i>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"3\">\n<td><b>mambo? </b>(<i>mah</i>-mboh) (H<i>ow are things?)</i></td>\n<td><b>Poa </b>(<i>poh</i>-ah) (<i>great</i>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"4\">\n<td><b>kwaheri </b>(kwah-<i>heh</i>-ree) (<i>goodbye</i>)</td>\n<td><b>kwaheri </b>(kwah-<i>heh</i>-ree) (<i>goodbye</i>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"5\">\n<td><b>baadaye </b>(bah-ah-dah-yeh) (later)</td>\n<td><b>baadaye </b>(bah-ah-dah-yeh) (later)</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Basic Swahili questions","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Asking questions is a great way of showing interest and getting to know someone or a place. Dive straight into conversing with Swahili speakers by asking them questions about themselves and things you want to see. Start by learning the basic question words — what English speakers refer to as the W- words:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><b>nani?</b> (<i>nah</i>-nee) (<i>who?)</i></li>\n<li><b>wapi?</b> (<i>wah</i>-pee) (<i>where?)</i></li>\n<li><b>lini?</b> (<i>lee</i>-nee) (<i>where?)</i></li>\n<li><b>nini?</b> (<i>nee</i>-nee) (<i>what?)</i></li>\n<li><b>gani?</b> (<i>gah</i>-nee) (<i>which?)</i></li>\n</ul>\n<p>With those under your belt, you can start asking questions like the ones that follow:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><b>Jina lako ni nani?</b> (<i>jee</i>-nah <i>lah</i>-koh nee <i>nah</i>-nee) (<i>What is your name?</i>)</li>\n<li><b>Unatoka wapi?</b> (oo-nah-<i>toh</i>-kah <i>wah</i>-pee) (<i>Where are you from</i>?)</li>\n<li><b>Unaishi wapi?</b> (oo-nah-<i>ee</i>-shee <i>wah</i>-pee) (<i>Where do you live?)</i></li>\n<li><b>Unasema lugha gani?</b> (oo-nah-<i>seh</i>-mah <i>loo</i>-gah <i>gah</i>-nee) (<i>Which language(s) do you speak?)</i></li>\n<li><b>Unasoma nini? </b>(oo-nah-<i>soh</i>-mah <i>nee</i>-nee) <i>(What do you study?)</i></li>\n<li><b>Unafanya kazi gani?</b> (oo-nah-<i>fah</i>-nyah <i>kah</i>-zee <i>gah</i>-nee) (<i>What’s your job?)</i></li>\n<li><b>Ni saa ngapi?</b> (nee <i>sah</i>-ah <i>ngah</i>-pee) (<i>What is the time?)</i></li>\n<li><b>Posta iko wapi?</b> (<i>poh</i>-stah <i>ee</i>-koh <i>wah</i>-pee) (<i>Where’s the post office?)</i></li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Swahili numbers","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Get ready to state your phone number, exchange money, buy goods, and tell the time by practicing Swahili numbers. Here are some numbers to get you started:</p>\n<table aria-rowcount=\"18\">\n<tbody>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"1\">\n<td><i>0 </i><b>sufuri </b>(soo-<i>foo</i>-ree)</td>\n<td>18 <b>kumi na nane </b>(<i>koo</i>-mee nah <i>nah</i>-neh)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"2\">\n<td>1 <b>moja </b>(<i>moh</i>-jah)</td>\n<td>19 <b>kumi na tisa </b>(<i>koo</i>-mee nah <i>tee</i>-sah)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"3\">\n<td>2 <b>mbili </b>(<i>mbee</i>-lee)</td>\n<td>20 <b>ishirini </b>(ee-shee-<i>ree</i>-nee)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"4\">\n<td>3 <b>tatu </b>(<i>tah</i>-too)</td>\n<td>21 <b>ishirini na moja</b>(ee-shee-<i>ree</i>-nee nah <i>moh</i>-jah)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"5\">\n<td>4 <b>nne </b>(<i>n</i>-neh)</td>\n<td>22 <b>ishirini na mbili </b>(ee-shee-<i>ree</i>-nee nah m-<i>bee</i>-lee)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"6\">\n<td>5 <b>tano </b>(<i>tah</i>-no)</td>\n<td></td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"7\">\n<td>6<b> sita</b> (<i>see</i>-tah)</td>\n<td>30 <b>thelathini</b> (theh-lah-<i>thee</i>-nee)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"8\">\n<td>7 <b>saba </b>(<i>sah</i>-bah)</td>\n<td>40 <b>arobaini </b>(ah-roh-bah-<i>ee</i>-nee)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"9\">\n<td>8 <b>nane </b>(<i>na</i>-neh)</td>\n<td>50 <b>hamsini </b>(ham-<i>see</i>-nee)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"10\">\n<td>9 <b>tisa </b>(<i>tee</i>-sah)</td>\n<td>60 <b>sitini</b> (see-<i>tee</i>-nee)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"11\">\n<td>10 <b>kumi </b>(<i>koo</i>-mee)</td>\n<td>70 <b>sabini</b> (sah-<i>bee</i>-nee)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"12\">\n<td>11 <b>kumi na moja </b>(<i>koo</i>-mee nah <i>moh</i>-jah)</td>\n<td>80 <b>themanini</b> (theh-mah-<i>nee</i>-nee)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"13\">\n<td>12 <b>kumi na mbili </b>(<i>koo</i>-mee nah m-<i>bee</i>-lee)</td>\n<td>90 <b>tisini</b> (tee-<i>see</i>-nee)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"14\">\n<td>13 <b>kumi na tatu </b>(<i>koo</i>-mee nah ta<i>h</i>-too)</td>\n<td>100 <b>mia moja</b> (<i>mee</i>-ah <i>moh</i>-jah)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"15\">\n<td>14 <b>kumi na nne </b>(<i>koo</i>-mee nah <i>n</i>-neh)</td>\n<td>1000 <b>elfu moja</b> <i>(ehl</i>-foo <i>moh</i>-jah)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"16\">\n<td>15 <b>kumi na tano </b>(<i>koo</i>-mee nah <i>tah</i>-jah)</td>\n<td>10,000 <b>elfu kumi</b> (<i>ehl</i>-foo <i>koo</i>-mee)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"17\">\n<td>16 <b>kumi na sita </b>(<i>koo</i>-mee nah <i>see</i>-tah)</td>\n<td>100,000 <b>laki moja</b> (<i>lah</i>-kee <i>moh</i>-jah)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr aria-rowindex=\"18\">\n<td>17 <b>kumi na saba </b>(<i>koo</i>-mee nah <i>sah</i>-bah)</td>\n<td>1,000,000 <b>milioni moja</b> (mee-lee-<i>oh-</i>nee <i>moh</i>-jah)</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"The Swahili calendar ","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>To make sure you don’t miss any of your crucial appointments, be sure to learn the basics of the Swahili calendar. Here are the Swahili days of the week as well as the months of the year to help you.</p>\n<h3>Weekdays</h3>\n<ul>\n<li><b>Jumamosi</b> (joo-mah-<i>moh</i>-see) (<i>Saturday)</i></li>\n<li><b>Jumapili </b>(joo-mah-<i>pee</i>-lee) (<i>Sunday)</i></li>\n<li><b>Jumatatu</b> (joo-mah-<i>tah</i>-too) (<i>Monday)</i></li>\n<li><b>Jumanne</b> (joo-mah-<i>n</i>-neh) (<i>Tuesday</i></li>\n<li><b>Jumatano</b> (joo-mah-<i>tah</i>-noh) (<i>Wednesday</i></li>\n<li><b>Alhamisi</b> (al-hah-<i>mee</i>-see) (<i>Thursday)</i></li>\n<li><b>Ijumaa</b> (ee-joo-<i>mah</i>-ah) (<i>Friday)</i></li>\n</ul>\n<h3>Months</h3>\n<ul>\n<li><b>mwezi wa kwanza</b> (m-<i>weh</i>-zee wah kwah-<i>n</i>-zah) (<i>January)</i></li>\n<li><b>mwezi wa pili</b> (m-<i>weh</i>-zee wah <i>pee</i>-lee) (<i>February)</i></li>\n<li><b>mwezi wa tatu</b> (m-<i>weh</i>-zee wah <i>tah</i>-too) (<i>March)</i></li>\n<li><b>mwezi wa nne</b> (m-<i>weh</i>-zee wah <i>n</i>-neh) (<i>April)</i></li>\n<li><b>mwezi wa tano</b> (m-<i>weh</i>-zee wah <i>tah</i>-noh) (<i>May)</i></li>\n<li><b>mwezi wa sita</b> (m-<i>weh</i>-zee wah <i>see</i>-ta) (<i>June)</i></li>\n<li><b>mwezi wa saba</b> (m-<i>weh</i>-zee wah <i>sah</i>-bah) (<i>July)</i></li>\n<li><b>mwezi wa nane</b> (m-<i>weh</i>-zee wah<i> nah</i>-neh) (<i>August)</i></li>\n<li><b>mwezi wa tisa</b> (m-<i>weh</i>-zee wah <i>tee</i>-sa) (<i>September)</i></li>\n<li><b>mwezi wa kumi</b> (m-<i>weh</i>-zee wah <i>koo</i>-mee) (<i>October)</i></li>\n<li><b>mwezi wa kumi na moja</b> (m-<i>weh</i>-zee wah<i> koo</i>-mee nah <i>moh</i>-jah) (<i>November)</i></li>\n<li><b>mwezi wa kumi na mbili</b> (m-<i>weh</i>-zee wah <i>koo</i>-mee nah m-<i>bee</i>-lee) (<i>December)</i></li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-12-01T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":301262},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:56:42+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-11-21T21:15:39+00:00","timestamp":"2024-11-22T00:01:10+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Science","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33756"},"slug":"science","categoryId":33756},{"name":"Genetics","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33765"},"slug":"genetics","categoryId":33765}],"title":"Genetics For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"genetics for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"genetics-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜所领头羊提升":{"metaDescription":"Use this cheat sheet to get a handle on some key genetics terms and concepts, including the structure of DNA and the laws of inheritance.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"Genetics is a complex field with lots of details to keep straight. But when you get a handle on some key terms and concepts, including <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/science/biology/how-biologists-read-a-gene-with-dna-sequencing-169067/\">the structure of DNA</a> and the laws of inheritance, you can start putting the pieces together for a better understanding of genetics.","description":"Genetics is a complex field with lots of details to keep straight. But when you get a handle on some key terms and concepts, including <a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/science/biology/how-biologists-read-a-gene-with-dna-sequencing-169067/\">the structure of DNA</a> and the laws of inheritance, you can start putting the pieces together for a better understanding of genetics.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9201,"name":"Rene Fester Kratz","slug":"rene-fester-kratz","description":"<p><b>René Fester Kratz, PhD</b>, teaches cell biology and microbiology at Everett Community College. Kratz is the author of <i>Molecular &amp; Cell Biology For Dummies</i>, <i>Biology For Dummies</i>, and <i>Biology Essentials For Dummies</i>.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9201"}},{"authorId":33264,"name":"Lisa Spock","slug":"lisa-spock","description":"<p><b>Lisa J. Spock, PhD, CGC</b>, is a clinical genomics specialist. Previously, she was a genetic counselor at Indiana University School of Medicine.</p>","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/33264"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33765,"title":"Genetics","slug":"genetics","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33765"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[{"articleId":267900,"title":"Gene Editing","slug":"gene-editing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","genetics"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267900"}},{"articleId":267897,"title":"Genetically Modified Organisms: Animals, Plants, Bacteria","slug":"genetically-modified-organisms-animals-plants-bacteria","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","genetics"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267897"}},{"articleId":267894,"title":"What are Transgenic Organisms?","slug":"what-are-transgenic-organisms","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","genetics"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267894"}},{"articleId":267891,"title":"10 Defining Events in Genetics","slug":"10-defining-events-in-genetics","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","genetics"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267891"}},{"articleId":267874,"title":"10 Hot Issues in Genetics","slug":"10-hot-issues-in-genetics","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","genetics"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267874"}}],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":267900,"title":"Gene Editing","slug":"gene-editing","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","genetics"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267900"}},{"articleId":267897,"title":"Genetically Modified Organisms: Animals, Plants, Bacteria","slug":"genetically-modified-organisms-animals-plants-bacteria","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","genetics"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267897"}},{"articleId":267894,"title":"What are Transgenic Organisms?","slug":"what-are-transgenic-organisms","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","genetics"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267894"}},{"articleId":267891,"title":"10 Defining Events in Genetics","slug":"10-defining-events-in-genetics","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","genetics"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267891"}},{"articleId":267874,"title":"10 Hot Issues in Genetics","slug":"10-hot-issues-in-genetics","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","genetics"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/267874"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":282228,"slug":"genetics-for-dummies","isbn":"9781394210190","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","science","genetics"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1394210191/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1394210191/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1394210191-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1394210191/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1394210191/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/genetics-for-dummies-4th-edition-cover-203x255.jpg","width":203,"height":255},"title":"Genetics For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><b>René Fester Kratz, PhD</b>, teaches cell biology and microbiology at Everett Community College. 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The following key terms are guaranteed to appear frequently in your study of all things genetic:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Alleles:</strong> Alternative versions of a gene</li>\n<li><strong>Autosomal chromosome:</strong> A non-sex chromosome</li>\n<li><strong>Chromosome:</strong> A linear or circular strand composed of DNA that contains genes</li>\n<li><strong>Diploid:</strong> An organism with two copies of each chromosome</li>\n<li><strong>DNA:</strong> Deoxyribonucleic acid; the molecule that carries genetic information</li>\n<li><strong>Dominant:</strong> An allele or phenotype that completely masks a recessive allele or phenotype</li>\n<li><strong>Gene:</strong> The fundamental unit of heredity; a specific section of DNA within a chromosome that codes for a specific molecule, usually a protein</li>\n<li><strong>Genotype:</strong> The genetic makeup of an individual; the allele(s) possessed at a given locus</li>\n<li><strong>Heterozygote:</strong> An individual with two different alleles of a given gene or locus</li>\n<li><strong>Homozygote:</strong> An individual with two identical alleles of a given gene or locus</li>\n<li><strong>Locus:</strong> A specific location on a chromosome</li>\n<li><strong>Phenotype:</strong> The physical characteristics of an individual</li>\n<li><strong>Recessive:</strong> An allele or phenotype that is masked by a dominant allele or phenotype; recessive traits are exhibited only when an individual has two recessive alleles at the same locus or gene</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"The structure of the cell nucleus and its chromosomes","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>If you could open the nucleus of a cell and peek inside, you’d find chromosomes — the strands of DNA where genes reside. This figure helps you see how all chromosomes, DNA, and genes relate to one another.</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-266853\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/genetics-cell-nucleus.jpg\" alt=\"illustration of cell nucleus\" width=\"453\" height=\"303\" /></p>\n"},{"title":"Mendel’s laws of inheritance","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Genetic inheritance rests upon three fundamental concepts put forth by Gregor Mendel, a monk and part-time scientist who founded the entire discipline of genetics. Mendel’s three laws of inheritance include:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Segregation:</strong> In diploid organisms, chromosome pairs (and their alleles) are separated into individual <em>gametes</em> (eggs or sperm) to transmit genetic information to offspring.</li>\n<li><strong>Dominance:</strong> A dominant allele completely masks the effects of a recessive allele. A dominant allele produces the same phenotype in heterozygotes and in homozygotes.</li>\n<li><strong>Independent assortment:</strong> Alleles on different chromosomes are distributed randomly to individual gametes.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"The structure of DNA","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>DNA is made up of long chains of nucleotides. To make a complete DNA molecule, single nucleotides join to make chains that come together as matched pairs and form long double strands. Each nucleotide is composed of the following:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>A five-sided (pentose) sugar called <em>deoxyribose</em></li>\n<li>A phosphate</li>\n<li>One of four nitrogen-rich bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Nucleotides are joined together by phosphodiester bonds. Nucleotide chains are antiparallel and complementary.</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-266854\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/genetics-DNA.jpg\" alt=\"illustration of DNA\" width=\"275\" height=\"432\" /></p>\n"},{"title":"Uncover inheritance based on genotype and phenotype ratios","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Every genetics problem, from those on an exam to one that determines what coat color your dog’s puppies may have, can be solved in the same manner. Here’s a simple approach to any genetics problem:</p>\n<ol>\n<li><strong>Determine how many traits you’re dealing with.</strong></li>\n<li><strong>Count the number of phenotypes for each trait.</strong></li>\n<li><strong>Carefully read the problem to identify the question.</strong><br />\nDo you need to calculate the ratios of genotype (for example, AA, Aa, or aa) or phenotype (such as yellow or green)? Are you trying to determine something about the parents or the offspring?</li>\n<li><strong>Look for words that mean <em>and</em> and <em>or</em> to help determine which probabilities to multiply (<em>and</em>) and which to add (<em>or</em>).</strong></li>\n</ol>\n<p>When solving genetics problems, it pays to know what patterns to look for. The parent genotypes and offspring phenotypic ratios in this table can help you figure out what kind of inheritance is at work.</p>\n<table width=\"726\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td><strong>Parent Genotypes</strong></td>\n<td><strong>Offspring Phenotypic Ratio</strong></td>\n<td><strong>Type of Inheritance</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Aa x Aa</td>\n<td>3 A_ : 1 aa</td>\n<td>Monohybrid cross, simple dominance</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Aa x Aa</td>\n<td>1 AA : 2 Aa : 1 aa</td>\n<td>Incomplete dominance</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>AaBb x AaBb</td>\n<td>9 A_B_ : 3 A_bb : 3 aaB_ : 1 aabb</td>\n<td>Dihybrid cross, simple dominance</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>AaBb x AaBb</td>\n<td>9 A_B_ : 3 A_bb : 4 aaB_ : aabb</td>\n<td>Recessive epistasis</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>AaBb x AaBb</td>\n<td>12 A_B_ : A_bb : 3 aaBb : 1 aabb</td>\n<td>Dominant epistasis</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"The Central Dogma of Genetics","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The <em>Central Dogma of Genetics</em> is that the genetic information stored in genes is first transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) and is then translated into protein. Transcription occurs in the nucleus of a cell and uses the sequence of a gene to create an mRNA transcript. Each gene is identified by transcription machinery and includes its regulatory sequences (promoter, enhancers, silencers), exons (the sequences that code for the protein product), introns (the intervening sequences located between the exons that do not code for protein product), and the sequences that signal the end of the gene (terminator sequence).</p>\n<p>After the mRNA is created, a cap is added to one end, a poly-A tail is added to the other end, and the introns are removed by splicing. The mRNA then moves out of the nucleus, where it is then translated. During translation, the mRNA sequence is read in 3-base pair segments called codons. Each 3-base pair codon codes for a specific amino acid (the building blocks of protein). The result of translation is a string of amino acids that are joined to create the final protein product (a polypeptide chain), which is then folded and sometimes modified to make the active form.</p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" class=\"alignnone size-full wp-image-266855\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/genetics-dogma.jpg\" alt=\"illustration showing the Central Dogma of Genetics\" width=\"420\" height=\"400\" /></p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-11-21T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":209126},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2023-12-08T22:44:52+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-11-02T14:12:55+00:00","timestamp":"2024-11-02T15:01:12+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Language & Language Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33687"},"slug":"language-language-arts","categoryId":33687},{"name":"Learning Languages","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33689"},"slug":"learning-languages","categoryId":33689},{"name":"Italian","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33698"},"slug":"italian","categoryId":33698}],"title":"Italian Workbook For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"italian workbook for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"italian-workbook-for-dummies-cheat","canonicalUrl":"","搜所领头羊提升":{"metaDescription":"This Cheat Sheet will come in handy as you're learning Italian. It provides a quick reference for tenses, articles, pronouns, and more.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"As you're studying Italian, either on your own or in a course, keep this Cheat Sheet handy for a quick reference on articles, personal pronouns, tenses, and more.","description":"As you're studying Italian, either on your own or in a course, keep this Cheat Sheet handy for a quick reference on articles, personal pronouns, tenses, and more.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9663,"name":"Teresa L. Picarazzi","slug":"teresa-l-picarazzi","description":" <p><b>Teresa Picarazzi, PhD,</b> has taught Italian language, literature, and cinema for more than 30 years. She now teaches Italian at The Hopkins School in New Haven. She has lived, studied, and worked in Florence, Siena, Urbino, Cortona, and Ravenna, Italy. She has written books and several articles on Italian politics and culture. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9663"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33698,"title":"Italian","slug":"italian","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33698"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":208553,"title":"Italian For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"italian-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","italian"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/208553"}},{"articleId":207900,"title":"Italian Grammar For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"italian-grammar-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","italian"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207900"}},{"articleId":207893,"title":"Italian All-in-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet","slug":"italian-all-in-one-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","italian"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/207893"}},{"articleId":200932,"title":"Picking Up Italian Quickly","slug":"picking-up-italian-quickly","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","italian"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200932"}},{"articleId":200457,"title":"Discussing Your Job in Italian","slug":"discussing-your-job-in-italian","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","italian"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200457"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":296160,"slug":"italian-workbook-for-dummies","isbn":"9781119986706","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","language-language-arts","learning-languages","italian"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1119986702/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1119986702/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1119986702-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1119986702/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1119986702/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/italian-workbook-for-dummies-cover-9781119986706-204x255.jpg","width":204,"height":255},"title":"Italian Workbook For Dummies","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"","authors":[{"authorId":34784,"name":"","slug":"","description":" <p><b>The National Gardening Association </b>is the leading garden-based educational organization in the United States. Visit http//:garden.org.</p> <p><b>Charlie Nardozzi</b> is a nationally recognized garden writer, radio and TV show host, consultant, and speaker. Charlie delights in making gardening information simple, easy, fun, and accessible to everyone.</p> ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/34784"}},{"authorId":9663,"name":"Teresa L. Picarazzi","slug":"teresa-l-picarazzi","description":" <p><b>Teresa Picarazzi, PhD,</b> has taught Italian language, literature, and cinema for more than 30 years. She now teaches Italian at The Hopkins School in New Haven. She has lived, studied, and worked in Florence, Siena, Urbino, Cortona, and Ravenna, Italy. She has written books and several articles on Italian politics and culture. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9663"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;italian&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119986706&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6543b9b92e5ad\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;language-language-arts&quot;,&quot;learning-languages&quot;,&quot;italian&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781119986706&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6543b9b92ed99\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":0,"title":"","slug":null,"categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/"}}],"content":[{"title":"Definite and indefinite articles, and the partitive","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>In Italian, articles vary in gender, number, and spelling. They’re the best predictor of a noun’s gender. The following table outlines the two types of articles and the partitive, and their variations.</p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"143\"><strong>Gender/Number</strong></td>\n<td width=\"127\"><strong>Definite (the)</strong></td>\n<td width=\"135\"><strong>Indefinite (a, an)</strong></td>\n<td width=\"219\"><strong>Partitive (a little, some, any; [preposition di + definite article])</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"143\">m sing.</td>\n<td width=\"127\"><strong>il</strong>/<strong>lo</strong>/<strong>l’</strong></td>\n<td width=\"135\"><strong>uno</strong>/<strong>un</strong></td>\n<td width=\"219\"><strong>del</strong>/<strong>dello</strong>/<strong>dell’</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"143\">f sing.</td>\n<td width=\"127\"><strong>la</strong>/<strong>l’</strong></td>\n<td width=\"135\"><strong>una/un’</strong></td>\n<td width=\"219\"><strong>della</strong>/<strong>dell’</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"143\">m pl.</td>\n<td width=\"127\"><strong>i</strong>/<strong>gli</strong></td>\n<td width=\"135\"><strong>—</strong></td>\n<td width=\"219\"><strong>dei</strong>/<strong>degli</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"143\">f pl.</td>\n<td width=\"127\"><strong>le</strong></td>\n<td width=\"135\"><strong>—</strong></td>\n<td width=\"219\"><strong>delle</strong></td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Personal pronouns","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Personal pronouns in Italian serve the same purpose as in English. Italian has some pronouns that English doesn’t have, though: stressed and reflexive pronouns.</p>\n<table width=\"678\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"120\"><strong>Person</strong></td>\n<td width=\"108\"><strong>Subject</strong></td>\n<td width=\"102\"><strong>Direct Object</strong></td>\n<td width=\"114\"><strong>Indirect Object</strong></td>\n<td width=\"114\"><strong>Stressed</strong></td>\n<td width=\"120\"><strong>Reflexive</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"120\">1st sing.</td>\n<td width=\"108\"><strong>io</strong></td>\n<td width=\"102\"><strong>mi</strong></td>\n<td width=\"114\"><strong>mi</strong></td>\n<td width=\"114\"><strong>Me</strong></td>\n<td width=\"120\"><strong>mi</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"120\">2nd sing.</td>\n<td width=\"108\"><strong>tu</strong></td>\n<td width=\"102\"><strong>ti</strong></td>\n<td width=\"114\"><strong>ti</strong></td>\n<td width=\"114\"><strong>Te</strong></td>\n<td width=\"120\"><strong>ti</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"120\">3rd sing.</td>\n<td width=\"108\"><strong>lui</strong>/<strong>lei</strong>/<strong>Lei</strong></td>\n<td width=\"102\"><strong>lo</strong>/<strong>la</strong>/<strong>la</strong></td>\n<td width=\"114\"><strong>gli</strong>/<strong>le</strong>/<strong>Le</strong></td>\n<td width=\"114\"><strong>lui</strong>/<strong>lei</strong>/<strong>Lei</strong></td>\n<td width=\"120\"><strong>si</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"120\">1st pl.</td>\n<td width=\"108\"><strong>noi</strong></td>\n<td width=\"102\"><strong>ci</strong></td>\n<td width=\"114\"><strong>ci</strong></td>\n<td width=\"114\"><strong>Noi</strong></td>\n<td width=\"120\"><strong>ci</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"120\">2nd pl.</td>\n<td width=\"108\"><strong>voi</strong></td>\n<td width=\"102\"><strong>vi</strong></td>\n<td width=\"114\"><strong>vi</strong></td>\n<td width=\"114\"><strong>Voi</strong></td>\n<td width=\"120\"><strong>vi</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"120\">3rd pl.</td>\n<td width=\"108\"><strong>loro</strong></td>\n<td width=\"102\"><strong>le</strong>/<strong>li</strong></td>\n<td width=\"114\"><strong>gli</strong></td>\n<td width=\"114\"><strong>loro</strong></td>\n<td width=\"120\"><strong>si</strong></td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"},{"title":"Simple prepositions","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Italian has eight basic prepositions (amongst many), which correspond to the basic prepositions used in English. Remember, though, that although the translations shown here reflect the meanings in each language, the usage sometimes differs between the two languages, depending on context.</p>\n<p>The basic prepositions are as follows; I’ve put a star by the ones that are typically — but not always! — contracted with a definite article:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>di</strong>* (<em>of</em>, <em>about</em>, <em>some</em>, possession)</li>\n<li><strong>a</strong>* (<em>at</em>, <em>to</em>)</li>\n<li><strong>da</strong>* (<em>from</em>, <em>by</em>, <em>at</em>)</li>\n<li><strong>in</strong>* (<em>in</em>, <em>into</em>, <em>to</em>)</li>\n<li><strong>con</strong> (<em>with</em>)</li>\n<li><strong>su</strong>* (<em>on</em>, <em>onto</em>)</li>\n<li><strong>per</strong> (<em>for</em>, <em>through</em>)</li>\n<li><strong>fra</strong>/<strong>tra</strong> (<em>between</em>, <em>among</em>)</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Tenses in Italian","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>This section provides you with samples of the tenses included in the book.</p>\n<p><strong>Modo indicativo (indicative mood)</strong></p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"> <strong>Modo Indicativo (Indicative Mood) Tenses</strong></td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Example Using guardare (to look/to watch)</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>presente</strong> (<em>simple present</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Io guardo.</strong> (<em>I look/I’m looking/I’m watching/I do watch.</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>presente progressivo</strong> (<em>present progressive</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Io sto guardando.</strong> (I<em>‘m looking./</em>I’m watching</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>imperfetto</strong> (<em>imperfect</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Io guardavo.</strong> (<em>I looked/I was watching.</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>imperfetto progressivo </strong>(<em>past</em>/<em>imperfect progressive</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Io stavo guardando. </strong>(<em>I was looking.</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>passato prossimo</strong> (<em>present perfect</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Io ho guardato.</strong> (<em>I have looked/I did look.</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>trapassato prossimo</strong> (<em>past perfect</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Io avevo guardato</strong> (<em>I had looked.</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>futuro</strong> (<em>future</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Io guarderò.</strong> (<em>I will look.</em>); infinitive stem</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Future anteriore</strong> (<em>future perfect</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>avrò</strong><strong> guardato</strong> (<em>I will have looked/watched.</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<p><strong>Modo condizionale (conditional mood): Infinitive Stem + –ei, –esti, –ebbe, –emmo, –este, –ebbero</strong></p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Tense</strong></td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Example Using guardare (to look/watch)</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>presente</strong> (<em>present</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Io guarderei. </strong>(<em>I would look/watch.</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>passato</strong> (<em>past</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Io avrei guardato.</strong> (<em>I would have looked.</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<p><strong>Modo imperativo (imperative mood)</strong></p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Subject Pronouns</strong></td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Example Using guardare (to look/to watch)</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Tu</strong></td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Guarda! </strong>(<em>[You] look!</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Lei</strong> (<em>you</em>, formal)</td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Guardi! </strong>(<em>[You] look!</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Noi</strong></td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Guardiamo! </strong>(<em>[We] Let’s look!</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Voi</strong></td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Guardate!</strong> (<em>[You all] look!</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Loro</strong> (plural; <em>you</em>, formal)</td>\n<td width=\"312\"><strong>Guardino! </strong><em>[You] look!</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<p><strong>Modo participio (participle)</strong></p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>Infinitive Ending</strong></td>\n<td width=\"160\"><strong>Participle Ending</strong></td>\n<td width=\"140\"><strong>Example Infinitive</strong></td>\n<td width=\"168\"><strong>Example Participle</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>­–are</strong></td>\n<td width=\"160\"><strong>–ato</strong></td>\n<td width=\"140\"><strong>guardare</strong> (<em>to watch</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"168\"><strong>guardato</strong> (<em>watched</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>–ere</strong></td>\n<td width=\"160\"><strong>–uto</strong></td>\n<td width=\"140\"><strong>ripetere</strong> (<em>to repeat</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"168\"><strong>ripetuto</strong> (<em>repeated</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>–ire</strong></td>\n<td width=\"160\"><strong>–ito</strong></td>\n<td width=\"140\"><strong>finire</strong> (<em>to finish</em>/<em>to end</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"168\"><strong>finito</strong> (<em>finished</em>/<em>ended</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"156\">Irregular</td>\n<td width=\"160\">Irregular</td>\n<td width=\"140\"><strong>dire</strong> (<em>to say</em>/<em>to tell</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"168\"><strong>detto</strong> (<em>said</em>/<em>told</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<p><strong>Modo gerundio (gerund)</strong></p>\n<table>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>Infinitive Ending</strong></td>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>Gerund Ending</strong></td>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>Example Infinitive</strong></td>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>Example Gerund</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>–are</strong></td>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>–ando</strong></td>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>guardare</strong> (<em>to look</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>guardando</strong> (<em>looking</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>–ere</strong></td>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>–endo</strong></td>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>ripetere</strong> (<em>to repeat</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>ripetendo</strong> (<em>repeating</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>–ire</strong></td>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>–endo</strong></td>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>dormire</strong> (<em>to sleep</em>)</td>\n<td width=\"156\"><strong>dormendo</strong> (<em>sleeping</em>)</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2023-12-08T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":296223},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:57:28+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-11-01T19:37:58+00:00","timestamp":"2024-11-01T21:01:13+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Study Skills & Test Prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"slug":"study-skills-test-prep","categoryId":33772},{"name":"Armed Services","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33776"},"slug":"armed-services","categoryId":33776}],"title":"ASVAB AFQT For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"asvab afqt for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"asvab-afqt-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜所领头羊提升":{"metaDescription":"Learn about the AFQT score, eligibility scores for different military branches, and how to do well on the math subtests.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"If you're thinking about joining the U.S. military, your Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) score may well be the most important score you achieve on any military test. You need a qualifying score on the AFQT, or your plans for enlistment come to a dead end — and each branch of the military has its own minimum AFQT score requirements.\r\n\r\nPart of getting a high score on the AFQT involves brushing up on your math skills. You need to memorize key formulas and use proven test-taking strategies to maximize your chances for a high math score. The other part is making sure you have a firm grasp on English; in order to ace the language parts of the AFQT, you need a solid vocabulary and good reading comprehension skills.","description":"If you're thinking about joining the U.S. military, your Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) score may well be the most important score you achieve on any military test. You need a qualifying score on the AFQT, or your plans for enlistment come to a dead end — and each branch of the military has its own minimum AFQT score requirements.\r\n\r\nPart of getting a high score on the AFQT involves brushing up on your math skills. You need to memorize key formulas and use proven test-taking strategies to maximize your chances for a high math score. The other part is making sure you have a firm grasp on English; in order to ace the language parts of the AFQT, you need a solid vocabulary and good reading comprehension skills.","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":11018,"name":"Angie Papple Johnston","slug":"angie-papple-johnston","description":" <p><b>Angie Papple Johnston</b> joined the U.S. Army in 2006 as a CBRN specialist. Currently, she&#39;s the CBRN noncommissioned officer&#45;in&#45;charge of an aviation battalion in Washington, D.C. <b>Rod Powers</b> served more than 20 years in the U.S. Air Force and retired as a first sergeant. 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Currently, she&#39;s the CBRN noncommissioned officer&#45;in&#45;charge of an aviation battalion in Washington, D.C. <b>Rod Powers</b> served more than 20 years in the U.S. Air Force and retired as a first sergeant. <p><b>Angie Papple Johnston</b> joined the U.S. Army in 2006 as a CBRN specialist. Currently, she&#39;s the CBRN noncommissioned officer&#45;in&#45;charge of an aviation battalion in Washington, D.C. <b><b data-author-id=\"9112\">Rod Powers</b></b> served more than 20 years in the U.S. Air Force and retired as a first sergeant.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":11018,"name":"Angie Papple Johnston","slug":"angie-papple-johnston","description":" <p><b>Angie Papple Johnston</b> joined the U.S. Army in 2006 as a CBRN specialist. Currently, she&#39;s the CBRN noncommissioned officer&#45;in&#45;charge of an aviation battalion in Washington, D.C. <b>Rod Powers</b> served more than 20 years in the U.S. Air Force and retired as a first sergeant. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/11018"}},{"authorId":9112,"name":"Rod Powers","slug":"rod-powers","description":" <p><b>Angie Papple Johnston</b> joined the U.S. Army in 2006 as a CBRN specialist. Currently, she&#39;s the CBRN noncommissioned officer&#45;in&#45;charge of an aviation battalion in Washington, D.C. <b>Rod Powers</b> served more than 20 years in the U.S. Air Force and retired as a first sergeant. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9112"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;armed-services&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394216369&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6542bc99cd1b3\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;armed-services&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394216369&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-6542bc99cd8c1\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":194271,"title":"ASVAB AFQT Qualifying Scores","slug":"asvab-afqt-qualifying-scores","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","armed-services"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194271"}},{"articleId":194270,"title":"Acing the Math Subtests of the ASVAB AFQT","slug":"acing-the-math-subtests-of-the-asvab-afqt","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","armed-services"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/194270"}}],"content":[{"title":"ASVAB AFQT qualifying scores","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>To enlist in the U.S. military, you have to take the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) exam, which consists of nine separately timed subtests. These subtests are used by the military to determine your aptitude to learn various military jobs.</p>\n<p>Four of the ASVAB subtests are used to compute the Armed Forces AFQT score, a percentile score that runs from 1 to 99. This score determines whether you’re qualified to join the military service of your choice. Each branch of the military has its own minimum AFQT score standards:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Army (including Army National Guard and Army Reserves):</strong> The Army requires a minimum AFQT score of 31 for those with a high school diploma and a score of 50 for those with a high school equivalency certificate. When the Army is experiencing high recruiting and reenlistment rates, it has been known to temporarily increase its qualifying AFQT score minimum to as high as 50.</li>\n<li><strong>Air Force (including Air National Guard and Air Force Reserves):</strong> Air Force recruits must score at least a 36 on the AFQT to qualify for enlistment, but more than 70 percent of people who are accepted for an Air Force enlistment score 50 or above. For those who have a high school equivalency certificate instead of a high school diploma, the minimum score is 65.</li>\n<li><strong>Navy:</strong> Navy recruits must score at least 35 on the AFQT to qualify for enlistment. If you have a high school equivalency certificate, the minimum score is 50.</li>\n<li><strong>Navy Reserves:</strong> The Navy Reserves requires a minimum score of 31 on the AFQT for those with a high school diploma and 50 for those with a high school equivalency certificate. The Navy is the only branch for which the requirements for the Reserves are different from the requirements for the branch itself.</li>\n<li><strong>Marine Corps (including Marine Corps Reserves):</strong> Marine Corps recruits must score at least 32. People who have a high school equivalency certificate must score a minimum of 50 on the AFQT to be considered. The Marine Corps limits GED enlistments to about 5 percent to 10 percent per year.</li>\n<li><strong>Coast Guard (including Coast Guard Reserves):</strong> The Coast Guard requires a minimum of 40 points on the AFQT. A waiver is possible for applicants with prior service if their ASVAB line scores qualify them for a specific job and they’re willing to enlist in that job. The minimum AFQT score for people who have a high school equivalency certificate is 50.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Acing the math subtests","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Two of the four subtests that make up your AFQT score are math tests. The first, Arithmetic Reasoning, tests your ability to use mathematics to solve various problems that you may encounter in real life — in other words, math word problems.</p>\n<p>The second, Mathematics Knowledge, tests your ability to solve general math problems. Here are some tips to help maximize your ASVAB math subtest scores:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Memorize the math order of operations.</strong> Start by working everything in parentheses. Then move on to exponents. Then perform any multiplication and division. End with addition and subtraction. An easy way to remember this order is to think of the phrase, “<strong>P</strong>lease <strong>E</strong>xcuse <strong>M</strong>y <strong>D</strong>ear <strong>A</strong>unt <strong>S</strong>ally” (<strong>P</strong>arentheses, <strong>E</strong>xponents, <strong>M</strong>ultiply, <strong>D</strong>ivide, <strong>A</strong>dd, <strong>S</strong>ubtract). While this order is flexible in some situations, knowing the basic order will help you maximize your score.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Remember the apples-and-oranges rule. </strong>Be sure to convert units of measurement so that they’re consistent. If a question asks how many 3-x-6-inch bricks it will take to cover a 6-x-6-foot patio, be sure to recognize that inches and feet are two different measurements and perform the necessary conversions.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Memorize common math formulas before the day of the test. </strong>These formulas are not provided for you at the testing center. After you receive your scratch paper, take a moment before the test starts and write down all the formulas you’ve memorized. Here’s a list of some of the formulas you need to know:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-two\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Perimeter of a square:</strong> <em>p</em> = 4<em>s</em>, where <em>s</em> = one side of the square</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Area of a square:</strong> <em>a</em> = <em>s</em><sup>2</sup></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Diagonal of a square:</strong></p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/167363.image0.png\" alt=\"image0.png\" width=\"100\" height=\"34\" /></li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Perimeter of a rectangle:</strong> <em>p</em> = 2<em>l</em> + 2<em>w</em>, where <em>l</em> = the length and <em>w</em> = the width of the rectangle</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Area of a rectangle:</strong> <em>a</em> = <em>lw</em></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Diagonal of a rectangle:</strong></p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/167364.image1.png\" alt=\"image1.png\" width=\"110\" height=\"29\" />, where <em>d =</em> the diagonal, <em>l =</em> the length, and <em>w =</em> the width of the rectangle. This formula is the Pythagorean theorem solved for the hypotenuse (c) — it just uses different letters.</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Perimeter of a triangle:</strong> <em>p</em> = <em>s</em><sub>1</sub> + <em>s</em><sub>2</sub> + <em>s</em><sub>3</sub>, where <em>s</em> = the length of each leg of the triangle</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Area of a triangle</strong><strong>:</strong></p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/167365.image2.png\" alt=\"image2.png\" width=\"100\" height=\"59\" />, where <em>b</em> = the length of the triangle’s base (bottom) and <em>h</em> = the height of the triangle</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Pythagorean theorem:</strong> <em>a</em><sup>2</sup> + <em>b</em><sup>2</sup> = <em>c</em><sup>2</sup>, where <em>c</em> equals the length of a right triangle’s hypotenuse, and <em>a</em> and <em>b</em> equal the lengths of the remaining two legs of the right triangle</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Radius of a circle</strong><strong>:</strong></p>\n<p><img loading=\"lazy\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/167366.image3.png\" alt=\"image3.png\" width=\"100\" height=\"66\" />, <strong> </strong>where <em>d</em> = the diameter of the circle</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Diameter of a circle:</strong> <em>d</em> = 2<em>r</em></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Circumference of a circle: </strong><em>c</em> = 2Π<em>r</em></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Area of a circle:</strong> <em>a</em> = Π<em>r</em><sup>2</sup></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Volume of a cube:</strong> <em>v</em> = <em>s</em><sup>3</sup>, where <em>s</em> = the length of one side of the cube</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Volume of a rectangular box:</strong> <em>v</em> = <em>lwh</em>, where <em>l</em> = the length, <em>w</em> = the width, and <em>h</em> = the height of the box</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Volume of a cylinder:</strong> <em>v</em> = Π<em>r</em><sup>2</sup><em>h</em>, where <em>r</em> = the radius of the cylinder and <em>h</em> = the height of the cylinder</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Surface area of a cube:</strong> <em>SA</em> = 6<em>s</em><sup>2</sup></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Surface area of a rectangular box:</strong> <em>SA</em> =2<em>lw</em> + 2<em>wh</em> + 2<em>lh</em></p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>Use the scratch paper provided to help you solve problems.</strong> Draw a picture for math word problems to help you visualize the situation and pick out the relevant information. <strong><em>Remember:</em></strong> You can’t use a calculator on any of the AFQT subtests.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><strong>For difficult problems, try plugging the possible answer choices into the equation to see which one is right.</strong></p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"BulletItem\"><b>Find out how to separate information and pay attention only to what you need to solve the problem.</b> Math word problems often provide extra information to confuse you.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"ASVAB test-taking strategies","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>You have a 1-in-4 chance of getting the right answer on any given ASVAB question — but you can improve your odds (and your score) if you keep the following test-taking strategies in mind.</p>\n<p><strong>Assess each question quickly.</strong> The ASVAB is timed, so you can only spend a short while on each question. Assessing each question quickly to decide whether you know the answer (or you can figure it out) or whether you need to guess will help ensure that you make it through each subtest with time to spare. If a question is beyond your skill level, make an informed guess and move on.</p>\n<p><strong>Eliminate bad choices.</strong> If you don’t know the answer to a question but you’re sure one or two of them are wrong, focus on the remaining answers and try to determine which one is more reasonable. Ruling out obviously incorrect answers will help improve your odds of getting the right answer.</p>\n<p><strong>Answer every question.</strong> Most people take the computerized version of the ASVAB (CAT-ASVAB), but a small number of people still take the paper and pencil (P&amp;P) version of the test. Either way, strive to answer every question. You have a 100 percent chance of getting a question wrong if you don’t answer it, but at least a 25 percent chance of getting it right.</p>\n<p><strong>Pay special attention the questions that follow guesses.</strong> The CAT-ASVAB adapts to your skill level. That means it first presents you with a question of medium difficulty; if you get it right, you see a harder question next. Get it wrong and the computer dishes up an easier one. A series of wrong answers can be really bad for your score, so if you’re taking the CAT-ASVAB and need to guess on a question, pay extra attention to the one that follows it. Getting that question right will help the test evaluate your ability more accurately.</p>\n<p class=\"article-tips tip\">The CAT-ASVAB adapts to your ability. Some people take the entire test without ever seeing a difficult question, while others find that most of their questions feature advanced concepts. Your mileage <em>will </em>vary based on your skills.</p>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"Two years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-11-01T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":209273},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-26T17:59:42+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-11-01T15:43:05+00:00","timestamp":"2024-11-01T18:01:10+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Political Science","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33751"},"slug":"political-science","categoryId":33751}],"title":"What Does the Speaker of the House Do?","strippedTitle":"what does the speaker of the house do?","slug":"what-is-the-role-of-the-speaker-of-the-house","canonicalUrl":"","搜所领头羊提升":{"metaDescription":"The House speaker is the presiding officer of the U.S. House of Representatives. Learn more about the role and its responsibilities.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"The speaker of the United States House of Representatives, commonly referred to as the speaker of the House (or simply, House speaker or the speaker), serves as the presiding officer of the House of Representatives.\r\n\r\nThe speaker fulfills several roles, including representing constituents as a member of Congress, acting as administrative head of the House, and serving as leader of the majority political party in the House.\r\n\r\nIf you’re wondering exactly what the speaker of the House does, see the full description of this political representative’s full responsibilities below.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The House speaker is second in the U.S. presidential line of succession after the vice president, but no speaker has ever acted as president.</p>\r\n\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_244033\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"535\"]<a href=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/house-speaker.jpg\"><img class=\"wp-image-244033 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/house-speaker.jpg\" alt=\"house-speaker\" width=\"535\" height=\"293\" /></a> Golden Brown/Shutterstock<br /><br />U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C.[/caption]\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >How is the House speaker selected?</h2>\r\nThe<a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/history/american/when-and-why-the-u-s-constitution-was-created-256325/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"> U.S. Constitution </a>authorizes the House to choose its speaker, who is selected by roll call vote on the first day of every new Congress. Customarily, each party (Democrat and Republican) nominates a candidate and members normally vote for the candidate of their party.\r\n\r\nRoll call votes are repeated until a candidate receives an absolute majority of all votes cast. The Constitution does not require the speaker to be a member of Congress, although all speakers have been members.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">The Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives keeps a <a href=\"//history.house.gov/People/Office/Speakers-List/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">full list of speakers of the House from 1789 to the present</a>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >What does the speaker of the House do?</h2>\r\nThe speaker of the House exercises duties as a member of Congress, as presiding officer of the House of Representatives, and as leader of the majority political party in the House.\r\n\r\nThese responsibilities include voting on legislation, administrative duties such as maintaining order within the House chamber, and other tasks such as appointing special committees.\r\n\r\nSee a more in-depth description of each of these responsibilities below.\r\n<h3>Member of Congress</h3>\r\nForemost, the speaker represents voters in their congressional district. As a member of Congress, they advocate for constituents’ needs, votes on key legislation, conducts town halls and meetings in-district and otherwise serves voters in their home districts.\r\n<h3>Presiding officer of the House of Representatives</h3>\r\nThe speaker of the House's duties as presiding officer of the House, include administering the oath of office to members, calling the House to order, preserving order and decorum within the House chamber and galleries, recognizing members to speak on the House floor, and making rulings about House procedures.\r\n\r\nThe speaker usually delegates some of these administrative duties to other members of the majority party, such as acting as speaker <i>pro tempore</i> and leading House legislative sessions.\r\n\r\nIn addition, the speaker appoints members and chairpersons of regular committees, special or select committees, conference committees, and designates a majority of the Committee on Rules.\r\n\r\nThe speaker also determines which legislation is assigned to each committee and which legislation reaches the House floor for a vote. Furthermore, the speaker determines the House legislative agenda, in consultation with party leaders, committee chairpersons, the president, and the Senate.\r\n\r\nAs a member of Congress, the speaker may participate in debate and vote but, by tradition, only does so in exceptional circumstances, such as when their vote would be decisive or on matters of great importance, such as constitutional amendments or war resolutions. The speaker presides over all joint sessions with the Senate because these official gatherings are usually held in the House of Representatives.\r\n<h3>Leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives</h3>\r\nBy tradition, the speaker is the head of the majority party in the House. This means the speaker is held responsible for passing legislation supported by the majority party. The speaker usually has a less prominent role as party leader when the president belongs to the same party. In contrast, the speaker’s prominence and public role typically increases when they're from a different political party than the president.\r\n\r\nFamous examples include Speaker Tip O’Neill’s vocal opposition to President Ronald Reagan’s policies, Speaker Newt Gingrich’s bitter fights with President Bill Clinton over domestic spending, and Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s clashes with President George W. Bush over the Iraq War.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Historical facts about the speaker of the House</h2>\r\nThe speakership’s power reached a pinnacle during the term of Joseph Gurney Cannon (1903–1911), who exercised tight control over the legislative process. Cannon instituted the traditions of determining the agenda of the House, appointing the members of all committees, choosing committee chairmen, and determining which committees heard each bill.\r\n\r\nIn 1910, however, a revolt of House members stripped Speaker Cannon of most of his powers, particularly the ability to name committee members.\r\n\r\nIn 1925, Speaker Nicholas Longworth (Ohio) restored most of the position's lost influence by expelling his opponents in the Republican party from the Republican caucus, stripping committee chairmen of seniority and appointing loyal supporters to committees.\r\n\r\nPerhaps the most influential speaker in history was Sam Rayburn (Texas) who was the longest-serving speaker. Speaker Rayburn shaped many bills by working with House committees and ensured passage of several domestic and foreign assistance programs advocated by President Roosevelt and President Truman.\r\n\r\nAs a sign of their influence, the House of Representatives’ office buildings in Washington D.C. are named for these three Speakers: Cannon, Longworth, and Rayburn. Here are few other historical facts about the Speaker of the House:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>First speaker of the House</b>: Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg (Pennsylvania), elected presiding officer on April 1, 1789.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Total number of speakers</b>: 53</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Longest-serving speaker</b>: Samuel Rayburn (Texas), served 17 years, 2 months, and 2 days over three terms as Speaker</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>First woman speaker</b>: Nancy Pelosi (California); she served as speaker from 2007 to 2011 and again from 2019 to 2023</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>State with the most speakers</b>: Massachusetts</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Only speaker to serve as President of the Unites States</b>: James K. Polk (Tennessee), elected president after leaving the House</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Youngest speaker</b>: Robert M. T. Hunter (Virginia), age 30</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Oldest speaker</b>: Henry T. Rainey (Illinois), age 72</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>First sitting speaker to lose re-election to his House seat</b>: William Pennington (New Jersey)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Number of speakers to die in office</b>: 5. Michael C. Kerr (Indiana), Henry T. Rainey (Illinois), Joseph W. Byrns (Tennessee), William B. Bankhead (Alabama), Samuel Rayburn (Texas)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","description":"The speaker of the United States House of Representatives, commonly referred to as the speaker of the House (or simply, House speaker or the speaker), serves as the presiding officer of the House of Representatives.\r\n\r\nThe speaker fulfills several roles, including representing constituents as a member of Congress, acting as administrative head of the House, and serving as leader of the majority political party in the House.\r\n\r\nIf you’re wondering exactly what the speaker of the House does, see the full description of this political representative’s full responsibilities below.\r\n<p class=\"Remember\">The House speaker is second in the U.S. presidential line of succession after the vice president, but no speaker has ever acted as president.</p>\r\n\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_244033\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"535\"]<a href=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/house-speaker.jpg\"><img class=\"wp-image-244033 size-full\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/house-speaker.jpg\" alt=\"house-speaker\" width=\"535\" height=\"293\" /></a> Golden Brown/Shutterstock<br /><br />U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C.[/caption]\r\n<h2 id=\"tab1\" >How is the House speaker selected?</h2>\r\nThe<a href=\"//coursofppt.com/article/academics-the-arts/history/american/when-and-why-the-u-s-constitution-was-created-256325/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\"> U.S. Constitution </a>authorizes the House to choose its speaker, who is selected by roll call vote on the first day of every new Congress. Customarily, each party (Democrat and Republican) nominates a candidate and members normally vote for the candidate of their party.\r\n\r\nRoll call votes are repeated until a candidate receives an absolute majority of all votes cast. The Constitution does not require the speaker to be a member of Congress, although all speakers have been members.\r\n<p class=\"Tip\">The Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives keeps a <a href=\"//history.house.gov/People/Office/Speakers-List/\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">full list of speakers of the House from 1789 to the present</a>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h2 id=\"tab2\" >What does the speaker of the House do?</h2>\r\nThe speaker of the House exercises duties as a member of Congress, as presiding officer of the House of Representatives, and as leader of the majority political party in the House.\r\n\r\nThese responsibilities include voting on legislation, administrative duties such as maintaining order within the House chamber, and other tasks such as appointing special committees.\r\n\r\nSee a more in-depth description of each of these responsibilities below.\r\n<h3>Member of Congress</h3>\r\nForemost, the speaker represents voters in their congressional district. As a member of Congress, they advocate for constituents’ needs, votes on key legislation, conducts town halls and meetings in-district and otherwise serves voters in their home districts.\r\n<h3>Presiding officer of the House of Representatives</h3>\r\nThe speaker of the House's duties as presiding officer of the House, include administering the oath of office to members, calling the House to order, preserving order and decorum within the House chamber and galleries, recognizing members to speak on the House floor, and making rulings about House procedures.\r\n\r\nThe speaker usually delegates some of these administrative duties to other members of the majority party, such as acting as speaker <i>pro tempore</i> and leading House legislative sessions.\r\n\r\nIn addition, the speaker appoints members and chairpersons of regular committees, special or select committees, conference committees, and designates a majority of the Committee on Rules.\r\n\r\nThe speaker also determines which legislation is assigned to each committee and which legislation reaches the House floor for a vote. Furthermore, the speaker determines the House legislative agenda, in consultation with party leaders, committee chairpersons, the president, and the Senate.\r\n\r\nAs a member of Congress, the speaker may participate in debate and vote but, by tradition, only does so in exceptional circumstances, such as when their vote would be decisive or on matters of great importance, such as constitutional amendments or war resolutions. The speaker presides over all joint sessions with the Senate because these official gatherings are usually held in the House of Representatives.\r\n<h3>Leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives</h3>\r\nBy tradition, the speaker is the head of the majority party in the House. This means the speaker is held responsible for passing legislation supported by the majority party. The speaker usually has a less prominent role as party leader when the president belongs to the same party. In contrast, the speaker’s prominence and public role typically increases when they're from a different political party than the president.\r\n\r\nFamous examples include Speaker Tip O’Neill’s vocal opposition to President Ronald Reagan’s policies, Speaker Newt Gingrich’s bitter fights with President Bill Clinton over domestic spending, and Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s clashes with President George W. Bush over the Iraq War.\r\n<h2 id=\"tab3\" >Historical facts about the speaker of the House</h2>\r\nThe speakership’s power reached a pinnacle during the term of Joseph Gurney Cannon (1903–1911), who exercised tight control over the legislative process. Cannon instituted the traditions of determining the agenda of the House, appointing the members of all committees, choosing committee chairmen, and determining which committees heard each bill.\r\n\r\nIn 1910, however, a revolt of House members stripped Speaker Cannon of most of his powers, particularly the ability to name committee members.\r\n\r\nIn 1925, Speaker Nicholas Longworth (Ohio) restored most of the position's lost influence by expelling his opponents in the Republican party from the Republican caucus, stripping committee chairmen of seniority and appointing loyal supporters to committees.\r\n\r\nPerhaps the most influential speaker in history was Sam Rayburn (Texas) who was the longest-serving speaker. Speaker Rayburn shaped many bills by working with House committees and ensured passage of several domestic and foreign assistance programs advocated by President Roosevelt and President Truman.\r\n\r\nAs a sign of their influence, the House of Representatives’ office buildings in Washington D.C. are named for these three Speakers: Cannon, Longworth, and Rayburn. Here are few other historical facts about the Speaker of the House:\r\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>First speaker of the House</b>: Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg (Pennsylvania), elected presiding officer on April 1, 1789.</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Total number of speakers</b>: 53</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Longest-serving speaker</b>: Samuel Rayburn (Texas), served 17 years, 2 months, and 2 days over three terms as Speaker</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>First woman speaker</b>: Nancy Pelosi (California); she served as speaker from 2007 to 2011 and again from 2019 to 2023</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>State with the most speakers</b>: Massachusetts</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Only speaker to serve as President of the Unites States</b>: James K. Polk (Tennessee), elected president after leaving the House</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Youngest speaker</b>: Robert M. T. Hunter (Virginia), age 30</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Oldest speaker</b>: Henry T. Rainey (Illinois), age 72</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>First sitting speaker to lose re-election to his House seat</b>: William Pennington (New Jersey)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n \t<li>\r\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Number of speakers to die in office</b>: 5. Michael C. Kerr (Indiana), Henry T. Rainey (Illinois), Joseph W. Byrns (Tennessee), William B. Bankhead (Alabama), Samuel Rayburn (Texas)</p>\r\n</li>\r\n</ul>","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9978,"name":"Kirk Bailey","slug":"kirk-bailey","description":"","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9978"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33751,"title":"Political Science","slug":"political-science","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33751"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[{"label":"How is the House speaker selected?","target":"#tab1"},{"label":"What does the speaker of the House do?","target":"#tab2"},{"label":"Historical facts about the speaker of the House","target":"#tab3"}],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":230574,"title":"What’s the Electoral College?","slug":"whats-electoral-college","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","political-science"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/230574"}},{"articleId":202872,"title":"Treasury Bill Investments Backed by U.S. Government","slug":"treasury-bill-investments-backed-by-u-s-government","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","political-science"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/202872"}},{"articleId":200176,"title":"Evaluating U.S. Presidents","slug":"evaluating-u-s-presidents","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","political-science"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200176"}},{"articleId":200000,"title":"Getting to Know the U.S. Court Systems","slug":"getting-to-know-the-u-s-court-systems","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","political-science"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/200000"}},{"articleId":199832,"title":"Meeting the Third Branch of U.S. Government: The Supreme 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class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;political-science&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[null]}]\" id=\"du-slot-654292663693d\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Articles","articleList":null,"content":null,"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Explore","lifeExpectancy":"Five years","lifeExpectancySetFrom":"2024-01-05T00:00:00+00:00","dummiesForKids":"no","sponsoredContent":"no","adInfo":"","adPairKey":[]},"status":"publish","visibility":"public","articleId":177633},{"headers":{"creationTime":"2017-03-27T16:50:21+00:00","modifiedTime":"2024-10-31T17:42:27+00:00","timestamp":"2024-10-31T18:01:09+00:00"},"data":{"breadcrumbs":[{"name":"Academics & The Arts","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33662"},"slug":"academics-the-arts","categoryId":33662},{"name":"Study Skills & Test Prep","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33772"},"slug":"study-skills-test-prep","categoryId":33772},{"name":"GMAT","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33784"},"slug":"gmat","categoryId":33784}],"title":"GMAT Prep For Dummies Cheat Sheet","strippedTitle":"gmat prep for dummies cheat sheet","slug":"gmat-for-dummies-cheat-sheet","canonicalUrl":"","搜所领头羊提升":{"metaDescription":"Here are guidelines, tips, and tricks for answering the different parts of the GMAT, including math, integrated reasoning, and reading comprehension.","noIndex":0,"noFollow":0},"content":"When you take the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), make sure you take the required items with you to the test. Use these guidelines to help you get through the integrated reasoning, data sufficiency, quantitative problem solving, reading comprehension, and critical reasoning questions — as well as for writing your analytical essay and conquering integrated reasoning questions.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_283522\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-283522\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/GMAT-graphic.jpg\" alt=\"GMAT\" width=\"556\" height=\"556\" /> © Waldemarus / Shutterstock.com[/caption]","description":"When you take the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), make sure you take the required items with you to the test. Use these guidelines to help you get through the integrated reasoning, data sufficiency, quantitative problem solving, reading comprehension, and critical reasoning questions — as well as for writing your analytical essay and conquering integrated reasoning questions.\r\n\r\n[caption id=\"attachment_283522\" align=\"alignnone\" width=\"556\"]<img class=\"size-full wp-image-283522\" src=\"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/GMAT-graphic.jpg\" alt=\"GMAT\" width=\"556\" height=\"556\" /> © Waldemarus / Shutterstock.com[/caption]","blurb":"","authors":[{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}},{"authorId":11243,"name":"Sandra Luna McCune","slug":"sandra-luna-mccune","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/11243"}}],"primaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":33784,"title":"GMAT","slug":"gmat","_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/categories/33784"}},"secondaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"tertiaryCategoryTaxonomy":{"categoryId":0,"title":null,"slug":null,"_links":null},"trendingArticles":null,"inThisArticle":[],"relatedArticles":{"fromBook":[],"fromCategory":[{"articleId":283513,"title":"The Coordinate Plane and the GMAT","slug":"the-coordinate-plane-and-the-gmat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","gmat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/283513"}},{"articleId":283506,"title":"Multi-Source Reasoning Questions on the GMAT","slug":"multi-source-reasoning-questions-on-the-gmat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","gmat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/283506"}},{"articleId":283501,"title":"Table Analysis Questions on the GMAT","slug":"table-analysis-questions-on-the-gmat","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","gmat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/283501"}},{"articleId":283496,"title":"Preparing for Integrated Reasoning on the GMAT","slug":"what-the-gmats-integrated-reasoning-section-is-all-about","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","gmat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/283496"}},{"articleId":249437,"title":"GMAT Practice Questions: Sentence Completion","slug":"gmat-verbal-section-practice-sentence-completion","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","gmat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/249437"}}]},"hasRelatedBookFromSearch":false,"relatedBook":{"bookId":300432,"slug":"gmat-prep-2024-2025-for-dummies","isbn":"9781394183364","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","gmat"],"amazon":{"default":"//www.amazon.com/gp/product/1394183364/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","ca":"//www.amazon.ca/gp/product/1394183364/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","indigo_ca":"//www.tkqlhce.com/click-9208661-13710633?url=//www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/1394183364-item.html&cjsku=978111945484","gb":"//www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1394183364/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20","de":"//www.amazon.de/gp/product/1394183364/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wiley01-20"},"image":{"src":"//coursofppt.com/wp-content/uploads/gmat-prep-2024-2025-for-dummies-cover-9781394183364-197x255.jpg","width":197,"height":255},"title":"GMAT Prep 2024/2025 For Dummies with Online Practice (GMAT Focus Edition)","testBankPinActivationLink":"","bookOutOfPrint":true,"authorsInfo":"<p><p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9087\">Scott A. Hatch</b></b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. <p><b><b data-author-id=\"9086\">Lisa Zimmer Hatch</b> </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions.</p>","authors":[{"authorId":9087,"name":"Scott A. Hatch","slug":"scott-a-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9087"}},{"authorId":9086,"name":"Lisa Zimmer Hatch","slug":"lisa-zimmer-hatch","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/9086"}},{"authorId":11243,"name":"Sandra Luna McCune","slug":"sandra-luna-mccune","description":" <p><b>Lisa Zimmer Hatch </b>served as VP of The Center for Legal Studies, where she created standardized test preparation. Currently, she is an Independent College Counselor and president of College Primers.</p> <p><b>Scott A. Hatch</b> develops courses for a variety of careers and assists those seeking advanced degrees in law, business, and other professions. ","hasArticle":false,"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/authors/11243"}}],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/books/"}},"collections":[{"title":"Career Shifting","slug":"career-shifting","collectionId":295890}],"articleAds":{"footerAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_adhesion_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;gmat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394183364&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-654140e59e683\"></div></div>","rightAd":"<div class=\"du-ad-region row\" id=\"article_page_right_ad\"><div class=\"du-ad-unit col-md-12\" data-slot-id=\"article_page_right_ad\" data-refreshed=\"false\" \r\n data-target = \"[{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;cat&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;academics-the-arts&quot;,&quot;study-skills-test-prep&quot;,&quot;gmat&quot;]},{&quot;key&quot;:&quot;isbn&quot;,&quot;values&quot;:[&quot;9781394183364&quot;]}]\" id=\"du-slot-654140e59edfd\"></div></div>"},"articleType":{"articleType":"Cheat Sheet","articleList":[{"articleId":170923,"title":"Items You Should Take to the GMAT","slug":"items-you-should-take-to-the-gmat","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/170923"}},{"articleId":170907,"title":"GMAT Math Question Tricks and Tips","slug":"gmat-math-question-tricks-and-tips","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","gmat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/170907"}},{"articleId":170929,"title":"Tips and Tricks for GMAT Critical Reasoning Questions","slug":"tips-and-tricks-for-gmat-critical-reasoning-questions","categoryList":["academics-the-arts","study-skills-test-prep","gmat"],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/170929"}},{"articleId":170911,"title":"Helpful Hints for GMAT Sentence Correction Questions","slug":"helpful-hints-for-gmat-sentence-correction-questions","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/170911"}},{"articleId":170931,"title":"Tips for the GMAT Reading Comprehension Questions","slug":"tips-for-the-gmat-reading-comprehension-questions","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/170931"}},{"articleId":170910,"title":"Tricks for the GMAT Analytical Writing Assessment","slug":"tricks-for-the-gmat-analytical-writing-assessment","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/170910"}},{"articleId":170921,"title":"Guidelines for Answering GMAT Integrated Reasoning Questions","slug":"guidelines-for-answering-gmat-integrated-reasoning-questions","categoryList":[],"_links":{"self":"//dummies-api.coursofppt.com/v2/articles/170921"}}],"content":[{"title":"Items you should take to the GMAT","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Forget your calculator when you take the GMAT. The only things you need to bring with you to the test, besides a confident attitude and a good night&#8217;s sleep, are:</p>\n<ul class=\"level-one\">\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>Your appointment confirmation letter or email:</b> When you schedule an appointment for the GMAT, Pearson VUE sends you a confirmation letter or e-mail that you should bring with you to the test. It proves you&#8217;re registered. Don&#8217;t despair if you can&#8217;t find yours, though. They&#8217;ll let you in if you have an appointment.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>A photo ID:</b> You have to prove that you&#8217;re you and not your really smart neighbor who looks a little like you coming in to take the test for you. Any form of identification that doesn&#8217;t have your picture on it is unacceptable, but valid government-issued picture IDs, like driver&#8217;s licenses, passports, identification cards, and military IDs, are great as long as they&#8217;re originals (no photocopies) and they present your name and date of birth <i>exactly</i> as you stated them when you registered for the GMAT.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p class=\"first-para\"><b>The names of up to five of your favorite MBA programs:</b> Pearson VUE sends your GMAT scores to five programs of your choice, so if you didn&#8217;t enter them online when you registered, be sure to have a list of your five favorites with you on test day.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"GMAT integrated reasoning tips and tricks","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The GMAT integrated reasoning questions test how well you apply logical reasoning to real-life situations. Here are some tips to guide you through this unusual section of questions:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Sift through information to determine what is relevant.</li>\n<li>Carefully read questions and graphical or visual representations of information.</li>\n<li>Be prepared to draw inferences and make judgment, recognize cause and effect, identify relationships in information, and apply rules or principles from provided information.</li>\n<li>Expect to perform simple computations, such as percent change or averages.</li>\n<li>Ignore excess data that you don’t need.</li>\n<li>Answer questions based on the information given, not on your personal knowledge.</li>\n<li>Use the noteboard to keep track of information.</li>\n<li>Use the onscreen calculator only when necessary.</li>\n<li>Pace yourself so that you can answer all the questions and subparts in the given timeframe.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Guidelines for answering the data sufficiency questions","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Data sufficiency questions require that you analyze the data in two statements and determine whether at some point there is <em>sufficient</em> information for you to answer the question. Here are some guidelines for approaching this question type, which is unique to the data insights section of the GMAT:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Memorize the five fixed answer choices so you don’t have to refer to them.</li>\n<li>Read carefully to know exactly what the question posed is asking.</li>\n<li>Avoid making unwarranted assumptions, such as assuming the variable <em>x</em> is always positive.</li>\n<li>Be sure to check whether the second statement is sufficient when the first statement is determined to be sufficient.</li>\n<li>When the question posed asks for the value of a quantity, decide given information is sufficient only if exactly <u>one</u> numerical value for the quantity can be determined.</li>\n<li>When the question posed is a yes or no question, decide given information is sufficient only if a <u>definite</u> yes or no answer is possible.</li>\n<li>Don’t work out solutions to the question posed unless you can’t decide sufficiency without doing so.</li>\n<li>Use the onscreen calculator as needed.</li>\n<li>If a question is taking too much time, make a strategic guess and move on.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Math questions tips and tricks","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>Does the thought of taking the GMAT math test make you break out in a cold sweat? Relax, and use these tips and tricks to help you tackle the quantitative section of the GMAT:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Be prepared to use your knowledge of basic math, probability and statistics, algebra, and problem solving.</li>\n<li>Memorize formulas and other common math knowledge beforehand.</li>\n<li>Write expressions and sketch diagrams on the erasable noteboard correctly.</li>\n<li>Avoid making arithmetic or algebra mistakes.</li>\n<li>Check to make sure you didn’t overlook something when formulating an equation.</li>\n<li>Read all the answer choices before you select an answer.</li>\n<li>Eliminate answer choices that don’t make sense.</li>\n<li>If a question is taking too much time, make a strategic guess and move on.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Tips for the reading comprehension questions","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>GMAT reading questions are designed to test how well you extract information from a passage. So follow these suggestions when answering the reading comprehension questions in the verbal section of the GMAT:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Read the entire passage. Don’t skim.</li>\n<li>Read the question prompt and ask yourself what type of question it is: is it asking for the main idea, for a fact from the passage, for the best answer based on your inferring, about the style and tone, or is it another type?</li>\n<li>Eliminate answer choices you know cannot be correct. Then return to the passage and look for your answer.</li>\n<li>In questions about the author’s tone, remember that the reading comprehension passages are usually written in fairly neutral style.</li>\n<li>In vocabulary questions, avoid guessing on a big word you don’t know just because it sounds impressive.</li>\n<li>When answering an inference question, look for logical hops in thinking, not giant, unsubstantiated leaps.</li>\n</ul>\n"},{"title":"Tips and tricks for the critical reasoning questions","thumb":null,"image":null,"content":"<p>The critical reasoning questions on the GMAT are all about using logic. To maximize your potential on the critical reasoning questions in the verbal section of the GMAT, use these helpful techniques:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>There are several different types of critical reasoning questions, so it’s a good idea to read the question first before the passage. That will help you establish what the question is looking for: to support the argument, to weaken it, to conclude it, etc.</li>\n<li>Some passages have multiple questions. Always consider them separately.</li>\n<li>Do not bring your own knowledge to the question. Use only the passage provided.</li>\n<li>Remember that the argument presented is likely to be weak or flawed.</li>\n<li>Most critical reasoning questions will ask you to strengthen or weaken the author’s logic. It’s therefore important to be able to explain what the logic – not just the topic – is. If you can find the spine of the logic, you’ll be in better shape to weaken or support it.</li>\n</ul>\n"}],"videoInfo":{"videoId":null,"name":null,"accountId":null,"playerId":null,"thumbnailUrl":null,"description":null,"uploadDate":null}},"sponsorship":{"sponsorshipPage":false,"backgroundImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"brandingLine":"","brandingLink":"","brandingLogo":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0},"sponsorAd":"","sponsorEbookTitle":"","sponsorEbookLink":"","sponsorEbookImage":{"src":null,"width":0,"height":0}},"primaryLearningPath":"Advance","lifeExpectancy":"One 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